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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.

Consciousness


Waking Consciousness
Consciousness occurs in varied states. We have not only the normal states of seeing and hearing, reasoning and remembering, daydreams and fantasies, but also the altered consciousness of sleep, hypnotic states, chemically induced hallucinations, and near-death visions (Myers).
  • Behaviorism- An approach favored by an emerging school of psychology (Myers)
  • Consciousness - Our awareness of ourselves and our environments, it brings variety of information to the surface, enabling us to reflect and plan (Myers).
  • Consciousness is awareness enables us to exert voluntary control and to communicate our mental states to others.(Myers)
  • Consciousness was viewed as resembling a car's speedometer: "it doesn't make the car go, it just reflects whats happening" (Seligman, 19991, p.24) (Myers).
  • Consciousness is the awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories AND feelings
  • Ex: "When we learn complex concept or behavior-say, driving a car-consciousness focuses our concentration on the car and the traffic. This awareness varies with our attentional spotlight. With practice, driving becomes automatic and no longer requires our undivided attention-freeing our consciousness to focus on other things" (Myers 266)
  • when we learn a complex concept/behavior our consciousness helps us focus on that concept
Levels of information processing:
- we register and react to stimuli we don't consciously perceive.
    • Ex) "When we meet someone we instantly and unconsciously react to their gender, age, and appearance, and then become more aware of our response" (Myers 266).
    • ex: When asked to push a button when you feel a tap, you can respond in 1/10th of a second which is less time than it takes you to become conscious that you have responded. (Myers 267).
  • Preconscious Level- contains information that is available to the consciousness but not always in consciousness (Talamo)
    • can be retrieved when needed.
    • automatic behaviors are stored. Involuntary body movements or unwilling verbal utterances. Several medical conditions manifest with automatic behavior, including hypoglycemia, and some sleep disorders.
    • Ex: "Stephen Kosslyn and Olivier Koenig (1992) suggest that brain events are to consciousness what a guitar's individual notes are to a chord. As a chord emerges from the interaction of different notes, so consciousness emerges from the interaction of individual brain events" (Libet, 1985) (Myers 266)
    • Subconscious- level at which information is stored but too difficult to deal with consciously (Talamo)
  • Repression- process of moving information that makes us anxious from consciousness to unconsciousness
Daydreams and Fantasies
  • Daydreams and fantasies are a constructive part of everyone's repertoire of behaviors. (Myers 268)
  • Daydreams may release tension, increase creativity, illuminate solutions to problems-and even lessen boredom. (Myers 268)
  • About 95 percent of both men and women say they have had sexual fantasies. Sexual fantasies do not indicate sexual problems or dissatisfaction. (Myers) In fact, sexually active and satisfied people actually have more sexual fantasies (Myers).
    • Men tend to have sexual fantasies more frequently, more physically, and less romantically then women do. These tendencies influence their preferences for books and videos. (Myers)
    • Women tend to be more emotional and sentimental when it comes to sexual fantasies.
  • Daydreaming mostly involves the familiar details of our lives, such as going over the day's events (Myers).
  • Daydreams can be adaptive and help us prepare for future events by keeping us aware of our unfinished business and giving us the chance to mentally rehearse (Myers).
  • Some developmental psychologists suggest that daydreaming of imaginative play can be more beneficial than watching television. Essentially, an hour of daydreaming nourishes social and cognitive development more than an hour of television ever could.
  • Singer found that nearly everyone has daydreams or waking fantasies everyday (Myers)
  • Compared to older adults young adults spend more time daydreaming and admit to more sexual fantasies (Myers)
  • Daydreaming of playing helps nourish a child's social and cognitive development (Myers)
  • Scientists believe that daydreaming lets us express things or work out things that we cannot in real life. Scientists have found that psychopaths do not have nearly as many daydreams as those that are not psychopaths (American Mind).
  • Daydreams may also substitute for impulsive behavior. People who are prone to delinquency and violence or who seek the artificial high is dangerous drugs have fewer vivid fantasies (Myers 268).
Sleep and Dreams
    • Sleep is a periodic, natural and reversible loss of consciousness
    • When people dream of performing some activity, their limbs often move in concert with the dream. (Myers)
    • Older adults sleep more than young adults. (Myers)
    • Sleepwalkers are acting out their dreams. (Myers)
    • Sleep experts recommend treating insomniawith an occasional sleeping pill. (Myers)
    • Some people dream every night: others seldom dream. (Myers)
    • Never wake up a sleepwalker, they are unconscious of their doings.
  • All of these statements are false, because:
    • During REM sleep, your brain stem blocks messages, leaving your muscles so relaxed that you are essentially paralyzed. (Myers)
    • As we age, our sleep patterns change. During our first few months, we spend less and less time in REM sleep. During the ages of 1-20, we spend less time asleep. As we age into the elderly stage we tend to sleep more but not neccassarrily the case for everyone.
    • The most common quick fixes for insomniainsomnia are sleeping pills and alcohol. However, these can both make the problem worse. Both reduce REM sleep, and can leave a person tired the next day. (Myers)
    • If one uses a drug for insomnia for a long period of time and then stops using it, insomnia can get worse than it initially was (Myers 279). The reason for this phenomena being that once your body has been adapted to the sleep-inducing chemicals found in the drugs, shutting down its use will result in a newfound imbalance within your neural chemistry as your body is used those chemicals.
    • Even those who claim they never dream, more than 80% of the time, recall a dream after being awakened during REM sleep. (Myers)
    • The more a person sleeps the more likely they are to dream ( Although this does not mean they will remember all or any of their dreams)
  • When awakened from REM sleep, less people report dreams with sexual imagery, less than you might think
    • 1 in 10 for male
    • 1 in 30 for female
  • Biological Rhythms - periodic physiological fluctuations (Myers)
    • Annual cycles- birds migrating and animals hibernating. Humans may experience seasonal variations in appetite, sleep length and moods. In far northern regions of the world, a depressed mood during winter months can lead to SAD (Seasonal Affective Disorder. (Myers)
    • Twenty-eight-day cycles- the human female menstrual cycle averages 28 days; researchers are skeptical that this cycle causes fluctuation moods (PMS)
    • Twenty-four-hour cycles- Humans, mammals, and birds experience 24-hour cycles of falling alertness, body temperature, and growth hormone secretion
    • Ninety-minute cycles- we cycle through various stages of sleep
    • When all time cues are removed our sleep- wake cycle averages about 25 hours (Krieger)
  • Researchers have found that when our retina is hit with light, that it causes a neural center in the hypothalamus called the suprachiasmatic nucleus to change the production of biologically active substances such as melatonin in the pineal gland (Myers). This that being exposed to sunlight can help to change the way our body reacts and functions, which offers an explanation of why it is difficult for many people to sleep during the day.
  • Circadian Rhythm is our Biological clock (Periodic physiological fluctuations, according to Myers) Where our bodies synchronize with the 24 hour cycle.Our biological clock changes with travelers or individuals without clocks.
    • Our Circadian rhythm changes as we age, defining people as "evening persons" or "morning persons"
    • It is hard for people to discipline themselves into changing their rhythm (i.e. time change, time difference ...)
    • Ex: Our body rises and awakens as morning approaches and drops before we go to sleep at night time
  • Melatonin is important in maintaining both normal sleeping and waking schedules, but also overall health and mood as well. For instance, if the normal hormonal balance of melatonin decreases, as is sometimes the case in people with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), mood tends to decline into depression. SAD usually occurs during the winter months or in places that receive little light (as the creation of melatonin can be influenced by exposure to the sun).
    • A transcontinental flight disrupts our circadian rhythm and we experience jet lag, mainly because we are awake when our circadian cries 'sleep!' (Myers 271)
  • Another negative with sleep loss is fatigue and being more susceptible to illnesses.
  • We can reset our biological clocks by adjusting our sleep schedule.
  • With age our circadian rhythm may change ex. "In retirement homes, all is quiet by mid-evening; in university dorms the day is far from over" (Myers 271).
- An example is if we stay up late and sleep in on weekends, we may end up with "Sunday night insomnia" and "Monday morning blues" (Myers 271)
  • Myers states three reasons as to why our bodies may have developed the need for sleep
      • Protection: While predators were out hunting at night, our distant ancestors found shelter in caves and were better off sleeping.
      • Recuperation: It helps to restore out body tissues, especially in the brain.
      • Growth: During sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone. As we grow older, the release of this hormone slows down.
    • Sleep patterns may be genetically influenced. When an experiment was done with identical twins the sleep patterns were extremely similar (Myers).
    • Due to modern light bulbs, shift work, and social diversions, people in urban nations are able to sleep less than then they did century ago.(Myers)
    • Average sleep time in 2001=6.7 hours / 1942= 7.6 hours (Myers)
    • Melatonin: A hormone that controls the cardiac rhythm within the body
  • Depriving people of sleep has not conclusively revealed because physiologically, we need sleep. Recent research reveals that sleep is linked with the release of pituitary growth hormone and that it may help to restore brain tissues and consolidate memories. Sleep may also have played a protective role in human evolution. (Myers)
Sleep Stages
  • About every 90 to 100 minutes we go through a cycle of these five sleeping stages, this was discovered when Eugene configured his 8 yr old son and measured the brain-waves during his sleep.
  • Before you sleep you lie in bed relaxed, showing slow Alpha waves in the EEG
Stage 1 - (starts at about first 2 minutes-5 minutes) short stage of sleep, lasts up to 5 minutes, hallucinations may occur and it's easy to be awakened Myers)
  • Heart rate slows and breathing becomes irregular
  • The body begins to hallucinate and undergoes "hyponogogic" sensations like feeling weightlessness, knee jerking, etc.
  • Hallucinations- false sensory experiences that occur without sensory stimulus(floating, weightlessness, sudden jerks [hypnic jerks], sensation of falling) (Myers).
  • Alpha and Theta waves are associated with this stage.
Stage 2 - sleep spindles occur during this 20 minute session of sleep, gurgling and sleep talking may happen. being awakened is still fairly easy.
  • sleep spindle occurs within the 2nd stage of sleep, with bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity.
  • You are actually asleep at this point because sleep deepens.
  • These spindles are sometimes broken up by K Complexes which are large and slow waves
  • Sleep spindles are important to growth and development.
Stage 3 - Extremely slow brain waves called delta waves (defined below), are interspersed with smaller, faster waves from the previous stages. In this stage it is now difficult for one to be awakened.
    • Since you are now deeply asleep, things like a truck passing by will not awaken you. However, because of selective attention, something like a baby's cry or the calling of your name would quickly awaken you. Your brain processes the meaning of certain stimuli even though you are currently in a deep sleep (Myers).
    • ex: You move around on your bed but do not fall out of it. You don't roll over and suffocate a baby sleeping in the bed with you. (Meyers 273).
    • We process most awareness outside our conscious awareness. (Meyers)
    • The brain almost exclusively produces delta waves, and will soon transition in to REM sleep (defined below). In this stage, there is no eye movement or muscle activity, just total relaxation. This is also when some children experience night terrors, sleepwalking, and bed-wetting. (http://www.sleepdex.org/stages.htm)
    • the lower the delta waves, the deeper one will go into sleep (McEntarffer 122); AKA "state of oblivion"
    • a person who is deprived of delta sleep is going to be more tired, leading to illnesses (McEntarffer 122)
    • Stage 4 (REM)
    • During REM sleep your heart rate rises, your breathing becomes rapid and irregular, and every half minute or so your eyes dart around in a momentary burst of activity behind closed lids. (Meyers 273)
    • Although your motor cortex is active during REM sleep, your brain stem blocks its messages. Your muscles are so relaxed that excluding an occasional finger, toe, or facial twitch, you are essentially paralyzed (Myers). Our body does this so we dont act out the dreams that we have. Our brain shuts down the spinal chord and if we wake up before our brain realizes it we experience sleep paralysis.
    • During REM sleep your genitals become aroused. Except very scary dreams, genital arousal always occurs, regardless of whether the dream's content is sexual (Karacan and others, 1966).
  • "Morning erection" stems from the night's last REM period, often before waking up (Myers 273).
  • REM sleep causes our heart rate to rise, as well as rapid and irregular breathing patterns. (Myers 273).
  • Rapid eye movements also stir the liquid behind the cornea; this delivers fresh oxygen to corneal cells, preventing their suffocation. (Myers)
  • REM rebound: Is the tendency for REM sleep to increase following deprivation.(Myers)
  • Our sleep patterns change as we age. We progressively spend less time in REM sleep during our first few months. During our first 20 years, we spend progressively less time asleep (Myers 283).
  • Alpha waves- the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.[Myers]
  • Delta waves- occurs during stages 3 and 4 of sleep and put your mind and body into total relaxation. Similar to REM but the body is not paralyzed, and many people may experience bed wetting and sleep walking.
  • Sleep- periodic,natural, reversible loss of consciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or hibernation. [Myers]
  • During stage 3 and 4 sleep, the body repairs itself, restores the various chemicals required for functioning, and in adolescents supplies growth hormones. If the body does not get enough stage 3 and 4 sleep, the immune system may be more vulnerable to pathogen induced sickness and the one will feel physically sluggish and drained
  • Regular alpha waves of an awake, relaxed state are quite different from the slower, larger delta waves in Stage 4 sleep. Although the rapid REM sleep waves resemble that of the Stage 1 sleep waves, the body is more aroused during REM sleep than in Stage 1. (Meyers 272)
  • Those who exercise more often also spend a greater time in stage 3 and 4 sleep, compared to those who exercise for shorter periods of time or not at all.
  • Measuring sleep activity- Sleep researchers measure brain wave activity, eye movements, and muscle tension by electrodes that pick up weak electrical signals from the brain, eye, and facial musicales. (Meyer 272)
  • The smaller the animal, the shorter their sleep cycles are. For example, rats are estimated to run through their in ten minutes, while it takes elephants 100 minutes.(Meyers 275)[1]
  • Stage 3 and 4 are usually paired together and are known as "slow wave sleep".
  • When we are awake and relaxed, our brain produces alpha waves
  • During the beginning of our sleep cycle, our brain produces irregular beta waves, which turn into theta waves as we fall deeper into sleep

Theories of sleep
  • The restoration theory of sleep
  • Brain Plasticity Theory
  • sleep is correlated to the structure of the brain sleep, sleep and brain plasticity are related in such that not enough sleep can affect the ability for people to learn and perform tasks.
- The theory that sleep rejuvenates the mind and body
-Rem sleep restores mental and brain functions while NREM seep restores key physical functions
  • "Sleep is a state that we do not know we are in until we leave it" (Myers)
    • We usually breath slower and stage one occurs
    • Most humans do not sleep eight hours however they do sleep nine, being the normal amount according to (Stanley Coren)
  • Newborns spend nearly 2/3 of their day asleep. Most adults no more than 1/3

Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia- the inability to fall or stay asleep. Approximately 10-15% of adults suffer from insomnia (Straub).
  • True insomnia is not the occasional inability to sleep that we have when we are anxious or excited. For any stressed organism, being vigilant is natural and adaptive. The most quick fixes or true insomnia, sleeping pills and alcohol, can aggravate the problem.(Myers)
    • Some ways to help treat insomnia are to avoid caffeine, exercising in the late evening, and relax before bed time (Myers 279).
  • Americans who report frequently experiencing stress average nearly an hour less sleep a night than do those rarley stressed (Myers)
    • Example: urban police officers, especially those under stress, report poorer sleep quality and less sleep than average.(Myers 279)
  • Narcolepsy- people who tend to have periodic and overwhelming sleepiness, lasts about 5 min could happen anytime. For example, while driving, eating, or having sex.
    • in extreme cases, the person may collapse into a brief period of REM sleep, accompanied by a loss of all muscle tension (Myers)
    • 1 in 2,000 people suffer from narcolepsy, estimates the Stanford University Center for Narcolepsy. (Myers)
    • Physicians have discovered the more immediate cause of narcolepsy-a relative absence of a hypothalmic neural center that produces a neurotransmitter called hypocretin (Myers 280).
  • Sleep Apnea- a disorder, when a person stops breathing during sleep.
    • there are machines that people with sleep apnea can use to prevent the cessation of breathing (Myers)
    • After an airless minute or so, decreased blood oxygen arouses the sleeper to awaken and snort in air for a few seconds. People rarely snore during dreams. When REM sleep starts, snoring stops. (Meyers 280)
    • can happen over 400 times a night, depriving the person of slow wave sleep
    • More common in obese people, or people who have high blood pressure (Myers).
    • there is medicine that can be taken to help sleep better and in many cases doctors prescribe their patients with a machine that allows them to sleep more throughly and breath normally throughout their sleep
  • Night terrors- are not nightmares and usually occur during the first few hours of stage 4 (Myers)
    • The difference between nightmares and night terrors is that night terrors occur within the first 2-3 hours of sleep and can't be recalled the next morning
    • People with night terrors experience episodes of high arousal with apparent terror. (Myers)
    • these are vivid dream like hallucinogens that usually happen with children and are not remembered when they awake.
    • A person experiencing a night terror might sit up, walk around, talk incoherently, experience a doubling of heart and breathing rates, and appear terrified (Myers).
    • The night terror-sufferer seldom wakes up fully during the episode and recalls little or nothing the next morning-at most, a fleeting, frightening image. (Myers 280)
    • Night terrors are not nightmares, night terrors occur within the 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, during stage 4. (Myers 280)
    • Night terrors are common with children and are usually grown out of it
  • Sleep walking and sleep talking run in the family (Myers)
    • Young children are most likely to experience sleepwalking (Myers).
    • Occurs during Stage 4 sleep, which is the lengthiest and deepest for young children (Myers).
    • Sleepwalking usually is harmless but in some rare occasions there's been an assault or homicides, according by Myers
    • 20% of 3-12 year olds have at least one episode of sleep walking, usually lasting 2 to 10 minutes (Myers)
    • In one study concerning twins and sleepwalking it was seen that 1/3 of those that had a fraternal twin that sleepwalked, actually sleepwalked. And about 1.2 of those who had an identical twin that sleepwalked, also sleepwalked. This does not rule out the possibility that perhaps sleepwalking does have to do with genes (Myers 280).
Sleep Deprivation Effects
  • Fatigue, impaired concentration, depressed immune system, greater vulnerability to accidents, temperament issues, impaired memory, recognition, recall, difficulty falling asleep again after waking up, impaired judgment/reasoning skills
  • sleep deprivation has also been linked to weight gain
  • teenagers typically need 8 or 9 hours of sleep, but they now average nearly 2 hours less sleep a night than their counterparts of 80 years ago. (Myers)
    • some people thrive on less than 6 hours of sleep each night. others regularly sleep 9 hours or more(Myers 275)
      Many current studies would argue that even more than 9 hours of sleep would be beneficial for an active teenager.
  • An example would be how there are more accidents in the spring time in the time change. Than the fall time change there are fewer accidents.(Myers)
  • sleep deprivation suppress immune cell that fight off viral infection and cancer ( Myers 277)
  • Not everyone needs the same amount of sleep to feel fully rested. Newborn babies spend much of their time asleep, while adults only spend about one-third of their day sleeping (Myers).
  • When we are sleep deprived, we accumulate sleep debt that we can not repay in a single long sleep. Our bodies will always eventually succumb to sleep (Myers).
  • To manage your life with enough sleep to awaken naturally and well rested is to be more alert, productive, healthy, and happy (Meyers 276).
  • In experiments, the U.S. Navy and the National Institutes of Health have paid volunteers to spend 14 hours daily in bed for at least a week. For the first few days, the volunteers in both experiments averaged 12 hours sleep a day or more, apparently paying off a sleep debt that averaged 25 to 30 hours. That accomplished, they then settled back to 7.5 to 9 hours sleep a night and, with no sleep debt, felt energized and happier. (Myers 276)
Sleep Functions
  • We need sleep for many reasons like:
    • Sleep protects us - we sleep as suits our ecological niche (Myers)
    • Sleep helps us recuperate - it helps restore body tissues, especially those of the brain. During sleep, our brain is active in repairing and reorganizing itself and consolidating memories. Sleep is food for the brain. (Myers)
    • Sleep plays the role of growth process - During deep sleep, the pituitary gland releases a growth hormone.
      • It is said that adults need less sleep, this is because as they grow older they need less of this growth hormone (Myers).
    • Sleep helps us act nicer- sleep relaxes the body and refreshes the mind, helping us feel better and usually when we feel good we act/do good
Dreams

  • Dreams- a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance of the content and later difficulties remembering it. (Myers)
  • Occasionally, people experience "lucid dreams", in which they are aware that they are dreaming and can test their state of consciousness (Straub).
  • dreams are so vivid we may confuse them with reality. We spend six years of our lives in dreams.(Myers)
  • Our dreams may be influenced by what's happening in our sleeping environment. For example, if a fire alarm were to go off when a person was asleep, they may imagine some kind of alarm going off in their dream. However this does not mean that if we were to listen to language tapes in our sleep that we would incorporate that language into our dream and actually learn from the tapes although we might remember hearing a sound, we just won' remember what the tapes were actually saying (Meyers)
    • manifest content- according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream. (Myers)
      • Ex: If your have a dream about your mom going on a long trip, the manifest content is literally your mom going on a trip.
    • latent content- according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream. Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve. (Myers) Freud believed that dreams can help shed light on inner conflict. (Meyers)
      • Ex: The latent content of your mother going on a long trip could be that you wake up and feel like she is gone forever. A therapist might suggest that you are worried that she might die.
  • "Freud believed that by fulfilling our unconscious wishes, dreams discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings."(Myers)
  • Even those who claim they never dream will, more than 80 percent of the time, recall a dream after being awakened during REM sleep. (Myers 274)
  • Information Processing Theory:Dreams help with the processing of everyday information.(Myers)
  • Activation-Synthesis Theory: Dreams are brain's attempt to integrate unrelated bursts of activity in the visual cortex, hence imposing meaning on meaningless stimuli. (Myers)
  • Cognitive theory: reflects development, learning and understanding.
  • REM rebound: if deprived of sleep, we are more quickly go into REM than normal sleep.
  • there have been studies that suggest those that dream less or have less vivid dreams than others tend to be more violent and impulsive
  • After suffering a trauma, people commonly report nightmares (Myers).
    • Nightmares tend to occur toward the morning during REM sleep.(Myers 280)
  • When we dream the amygdala in the limbic system of the brain is most active (producing emotions).
    • PET scans of sleeping people show that increased activity of several areas of the brain, especially the amygalda, which added with the limbic system's emotional tone enables us to dream (Myers).
    • If the limbic system or visual centers damaged, then dreaming itself may be impaired (Myers).
  • The explanation for dreams includes both biological and psychological components
Hypnosis
    • Credit for the modern popularity of Hypnosis goes to Anton Mesmer (1734-1815) who was an Austrian physician who had believed he had discovered "animal magnetism". He conducted an experiment in which he passed magnets over bodies of ailing people. Some appeared to be in a "mesmerized" state and woke up feeling better, hence the correlation between mesmerism and hypnosis (Myers 286).
    • Hypnosis- a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that a certain perceptions, feelings,thoughts, or behaviors, will spontaneously occur. (Myers)
    • hypnosis usually works better on those who believe in it or who are more relaxed than others
    • Most hypnosis researchers grant that normal social and cognitive process play a part in hypnosis, but they nevertheless believe hypnosis is more than imaginative acting. (Myers 297)
    • To an extent, nearly everyone is suggestible to hypnosis. Anyone who can turn attention inward and imagine is able to experience some degree of hypnosis. (Meyers 287).
    • Those who are highly hypnotizable- say, that 20% who can carry out a suggestion not to smell or react to a bottle of ammonia held under the nose- are still likely to be the most hynotizable 25 years later. (Piccione & others,1989)
    • Hypnosis, they suggest, is an extension both of normal principles of social influences and of everyday dissociation between our conscious awareness and our automatic behaviors (Myers 293).
    • David Spiegel argues that hypnosis can alter brain functioning after telling a woman that was deeply hypnotized, sitting before a TV screen, to imagine a cardboard box blocking the screen. When a stimlus appeared on the screen, her brain waves did not display the normal response. (Myers)
    • Posthypnotic amnesia is the supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion. (Myers)
    • Posthypnotic suggestion is a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors.(Myers)
      • ex. “After the count of three, you are to awaken and from now on approach every situation with a positive attitude.”
    • Posthypnotic Suggestion- a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors (Meyers).
      • Posthypnotic suggestions have been known to help cure some headaches, asthma, warts, and skin related stress disorders. (Myers)
    • Dissociation is a split in consciousness which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others. (Myers)
-EX: Under hypnosis ice water feels very cold, but lacks to cause any pain in the body, because our pain and emotional suffering are not in the same level
    • Like hypnosis, the Lamaze method uses breathing and concentration techniques that draw attention away from pain. Women for whom the method works tend to have high hypnotic ability. (Myers)
    • Hidden Observer - Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis. Hilgard believes the hidden observer is an example of dissociation. (Myers)
    • Most studies have found that hypnosis doesn't produce any unique psychological changes that would indicate an altered state of consciousness. (Straub)
  • Divided-consciousness theory: hypnosis has caused a split in awareness.
  • Social influence theory: the subject is so caught up in the hypnotized role that the subject ignores things as as odor
    • Hypnosis has been found to be useful on those who are willing and tend to take suggestions well. It cannot make you do anything that you would not do when not under the influence of hypnosis, including causing yourself or anyone else any harm. (Myers & Roby)
  • Those who had studied hypnosis have reached the agreement that the power resides not in the hypnotist but in the subjects openness to suggestion (Myers 287).
  • Age regression supposedly demonstrates the ability of people to relive experiences from their childhood. However, individuals merely act like they believe their childhood self would act. They continue to demonstrate adult like behavior after careful analysis (Myers 288).
  • *Remember* Hypnosis CANNOT lead to superhuman strength, regress to childhood, or lead someone into doing something against their own will
Altered state of Consciousness
  • A state in which the conscious is altered from its usual state, mostly accidental through disease or trauma, but can (and sometimes a goal in other cultures) be self inflicted through meditation, hypnosis, isolation, and drugs

  • Most known altered states are drunkenness and being "high", however in other cultures

  • Drugs and Consciousness
    • Drugs that act as the natural neurotransmitter are known as agonists. Opiates are agonists, because they bind to the receptor site of the neuron for the neurotransmitter. They serve as a substitute for natural endorphins, because their shape is similar to that of the endorphins. Opiates can easily bind on to the receptor sites for endorphins.
    • Drugs that block the receptor site on neurons for a neurotransmitter, without behaving as the neurotransmitter are known as antagonists.
    • Some drugs behave as neither agonists nor antagonists, but instead prevent the re-uptake of the neurotransmitter into the neuron that released it. This leads to an excess amount of the neurotransmitter than gets trapper in the synapse.[2]
    • Psychoactive drugs - a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood; affects mostly the central nervous system, they work by affecting or mimicking the activity of neurotransmitters, according to Myers.
    • According to Myers, a depressant is a drug that reduces neural activity and slows down body functions. These include opiates , barbiturates, and alcohol(Myers)
    • Depressant reduces neural activity and slows brain functions. Such depressants are; alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates (Myers).
    • alcohol is a depressant in large amounts and a depressant in small amounts as well. People may report an influx on energy after drinking a small amount of alcohol, and this is why alcohol is sometimes considered a stimulant in small amounts. This has to do with the effects the individual perceives (similar to the placebo effect) the alcohol will have on him or her and also the lessening of social restrains that occur along with the relaxation taking place as the functions of the sympathetic nervous system are reduced in speed.[3]
    • barbiturates-drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety, but impairing memory and judgment (Myers).
      • - they mimic the affect of alcohol, they are prescribed to induce sleep and lessen anxiety, if used in large doses maybe fatal and lead to attempts of suicide.
    • opiates- opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety (Myers).
    • According to Myers, during the use of opiates, pupils constrict, respiration rate reduces, and the user becomes “lethargic”.(Myers)
    • Stimulants: caffeine (most widely used drug in America, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, excite neural activity and speed up body functions. (Myers)
    • Amphetamines speed up body functions and neural activity. Prescribed for weight loss and depression, rapid tolerance. (Myers)
    • Dangers: Nausea, vomiting, high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke
    • Hallucinogens- Psychedelic ('mind manifesting) drugs, such as LSD, that distort perception and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory images (Myers).
    • LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) - LSD is a powerful hallucinogen capable of producing vivid false perceptions and disorganization of thought processes. LSD blocks the action of serotonin. (Myers)
    • Ecstasy (MDMA)- A mild hallucinogen and stimulant, produces short term euphoria by increasing serotonin levels in the brain. (Myers)
    • THC - the major active ingredient in marijuana, according to Myers.
    • Marijuana-a mild hallucinogen that produces a variety of effects depending on the user's mood.Although marijuana is not as addictive as cocaine or nicotine, it changes brain chemistry, much as cocaine and heroin do, and it may make the brain more susceptible to cocaine and heroin addiction. (Tanda and Others)
    • Biological Influences can have something to do with peoples addiction(Crabbe,2002). An example would be adopted individuals are more susceptible to alcoholism if one or both of their biological parents has a history of alcoholism. (Myers)
    • Alcohol kills more people than all illegal drugs combined. So does tobacco (Siegel, 1990). (Myers)
Example: Monkeys, too, end up with a taste for booze when stressed by permanent separation from their mothers at birth (Small, 2002) (Myers 303).
Dependence and Addiction
  • Tolerance-The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect. (Myers)
    • Due to tolerance people taking drugs often have to take larger doses because the drug no longer works (Myers).
    • An example of this would be, a person who rarely drinks beer would get tipsy off of one can of beer but as the occasional drinker drinks that same can every day he will become tolee able to the can of beer therefore needing to drink more beer cans in one sitting g to feel tipsy or drunk. (Myers 294).
  • Withdraw-The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug. (Myers)
  • Physical Dependence- A physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdraw symptoms when the drug is discontinued. (Myers)
  • Psychological dependence- A psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions. (Myers)
  • Many who suffer drug addictions overcome them when their social context changes.
  • Misconception about addiction: (1) Addictive drugs quickly corrupt; for example morphine taken to control pain is powerfully addictive and often leads to heroin abuse. (2) addiction can't be overcome voluntarily; therapy is a must. (3) we can extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug dependencies, but a whole spectrum of repetitive, pleasure-seeking behaviors (Myers).
Near Death Experiences
    • Near Death Experience- An altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death; often similar to drug- induced hallucinations
    • Dualism: the presumption that the mind and the body are two distinct entities that interact
    • Monism : the presumption that the mind and body are different aspects that interact
      • People who survived events that almost killed them, later say they had visionary near-death experiences. (Myers)
        • 12% to 40% of patients say they experience near-death experiences.
        • They turn off brains inhibitory cells, neural activity increases in visual cortex. (Myers)
      • Believed that the mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
      • Mono (one) -ists (person who practice or relates of): Of one principle or consisting of a single element.
      • Tend to include scientists and theologians. (Myers)
      • They generally believe that life is embodied, that death is real, and that without bodies we are truly nobodies. (Myers)
      • Point out that reports of near-death experiences closely parallel reports of hallucinations and may be products of a brain under stress. (Myers)

      • theory in which it is believed that the mind and body work separately
      • dualism is closely associated with Descartes belief that the mind is a non physical substance
      • .Tend to believe that death is not the end of life but freedom from their bodily prison. (Myers)
      • Interpret near-death experiences as evidence of human immortality. (Myers)
      • Socrates once said "Does not death mean that the body comes to exist by itself, separated from the soul, and that the soul exists by herself separated from the body (Myers 306).

  1. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
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  2. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
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  3. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
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