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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.

Emotion


Emotion
  • A response of the whole organism; experiential and subjective responses to certain internal and external stimuli
    • physiological arousal (heart pounding) (Myers)
      • controlled by the Autonomic Nervous System
    • Emotions are mix of physiological activation (heart pounding), expressive behaviors (quickened pace), and conscious experience, including thoughts (is this a kidnapping?) and feelings (sense of fear, and later joy) (Myers 499).
  • Emotions are a mix of physiological activation (ex. heart pounding), expressive behaviors (ex. quickened pace), and conscious experience ( this includes thoughts like is this really happening and feelings like joy and fear) (Myers 49).
(Myers)
  • Spill over effect-our arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event (Myers).
  • "Emotions are our body's adaptive response. When we face challenges, emotions focus on attention and energize our action" (Myers 499).

  • "Not only emotion, but most psychological phenomena (vision, sleep, memory,sex, etc.) can be approached these three ways" (Myers).
  • Theories of Emotion
  • This explains the physiology, expression, and experience of emotion (Myers 500)
  • Although complex emotions such as guilt, happiness, and love clearly arise from conscious thought there is evidence that we can experience some emotions before we have time to think about the situation.
    • James-Lange Theory- the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological response to an emotion-arousing stimuli.
      • the arousal brings about the emotion. Stimulus --> __Physiological Response__ --> Experience of Emotion
      • EX: sight of oncoming car --> pounding heart --> fear
        • (perception of stimulus) --> (arousal) --> emotion
        • "We feel sorry because we cry, angry because we strike, afraid because we tremble." (1890, p.1066)
        • Ex: According to this theory, as you're driving down the road and your car steers out of control, after you finally regain control of your vehicle, you noticed your racing heart, and then shaking with fear, you feel the whoosh of emotion (Myers).
        • Example: You're going hiking and you see a mountain lion. You start shaking, your heart starts pounding, and you start sweating. You would interpret these responses and come to the conclusion that you are scared.
        • Example: You're walking across a street, you don't see the car coming, you notice their not stopping your heart races, breath speeds up and you jump out the way. You notice your shaking and breathing heavy and suddenly feel extra alert, You interpret this as adrenaline and fear.
      • Definition: Emotional experiences are based on an awareness of the body's responses to emotion-arousing stimuli: a stimulus triggers the body's responses that in turn trigger the experienced emotion.
      • In criticizing James-Lange theory, Walter Cannon argued that the body's responses were not sufficiently distinct to to trigger the different emotions (Myers).
        • With James Lange theory physical reaction is what stirs up emotion
        • ex: cutting onions. The physiological response to cutting onions is crying, however this response does not make us sad.
    • Cannon-Bard Theory- an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex, which causes the subjective experience of emotion, and to the sympathetic nervous system, which causes the body's physiological arousal (Myers).
    • the theory that en emotion-arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1)physiological responses and (2)subjective experience of emotion (Meyers 500)
    • Proposed by U.S Physiologist Walter Cannon after doubting the James-Lange Theory.
    • Walter Cannon and later Philip Bard, a physiologist, concluded that physiological arousal and emotional experience occur simultaneously (Myers)
    • A suggested theory that states that your heart starts pounding as you experience fear (500).
      • EX: sight of oncoming car -->pounding heart and fear
      • (perception of stimulus) -->(arousal & emotion <appear together>)
      • Definition: conscious, subjective experience of an emotion occurs at the same time as the body's physical reaction.
      • the thalamus sends simultaneous messages to the autonomic nervous system and cerebral cortex
        • cerebral cortex produces experience of emotion
        • the autonomic nervous system produces physiological arousal
      • This theory implies that your heart begins pounding as you experience fear; one does not cause the other. (Meyers 500)
      • Psychologist George Hohmann (1966) interviewed 25 soldiers who suffered severed spinal cords in World War II, and asked them to recall emotion-arousing incidents that occurred before and after their spinal injuries
      • Those with lower-spine injuries, who had lost sensation in their legs, reported little change in their emotions
      • Those who were paralyzed from the neck - down reported a considerable decrease in emotional intensity, as would have been expected by James and Lange (Meyers 501)
      • Although such evidence reinvigorated the James-Lange theory, most researches agree with Cannon and Bard that our experienced emotions also involve cognition (Averill, 1993)
      • With Cannon and Bard we can say that there lies more to the experience of emotion than reading our psychology
    • Schachter's 2-Factor Theory-
    • theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
      • EX: sight of oncoming car -->pounding heart and cognitive label "I'm afraid" --> fear
      • (perception of stimulus) --> (arousal & label) --> (emotion)
      • Definition: emotions have two ingredients: physical arousal and a cognitive label. Thus, physical arousal is a necessary, but not a sufficient component of emotional change. For an emotion to be experience, arousal must be attributed to an emotional cause
      • This theory also implies that an emotion can be heightened if the person is predisposed with aroused physical activities. For example, if Marina recieves a love letter from her boyfriend after a run, her feelings of love will be higher than if she had not gone for a run.
      • key idea to this theory is understanding that many emotional responses involve very similar physiological properties
      • Richard Lazarus agrees that cognition is essential to determining emotions. Robert Zajonc and Joseph LeDoux, however, believe that emotional responses occur outside of conscious awareness and before cognitive processing. The issue has practical implications: To the degree that emotions are rooted in thinking, we can change them by changing our thinking. (Myers)
        • Robert Zajonc's belief was that some of our emotional reactions involve no delibrate thinking and that cognition is not always necessary for emotion. The heart is not always subject to the mind (Myers 503-504)
      • Sometimes our arousal response spills over into our response to the next event (Myers
      • Example: You are trick-or-treating with your friends and you decide to walk down a dark street you approach a house decorated with graveyards and skeletons as you keep walking one of the skeletons you believed were just props yells out Boo your reactions will be as followed
    1. the skeleton yells boo
    2. your heart pounds
    3. you realize what has happened
    4. You are scared


















-Such as when you get back from a long run and the arousal is still lingering and you receive news that you got the job that you applied for, you're more excited about the news at that moment than if you were to receive it after a long nap.
- Two Routes to Emotion!!
*Event<Appraisal<Emotional Response
*Event<Emotional Response
-Dimensions of Emotion:
1. positive valence + low arousal = relaxation
2. positive valence + high arousal = joy
3. negative valence +low arousal = sadness
4. negative valence + high arousal = fear/anger

Must Cognition Precede Emotion?
Do we experience emotion first before we label our arousal? The answer is no. Follow up experiments confirm the lighting quick speeds of our autoMAtic unthinking emotional responses.
  • Research on neurological processes shows how we can experience emotion before cognition
  • Certain neural pathways involved in emotion bypass the cortical areas involved in thinking (Meyers 503)
  • The amygdala sends more neural projections up to the cortex than it receives back
  • After the cortex has further interpreted a threat, the thinking brain takes over
  • Emotion researcher Richard Lazarus (1991, 1998) concedes that our brains process and react to vast amounts of information without our conscious awareness
  • Lazarus also willingly grants that some emotional responses do not require conscious thinking
  • Complex emotions (e.g. guilt, happiness, and love) most clearly surface from our interpretations and expectations
  • Whether we feel irritated, depressed, or accepting depends on whether we attribute a low grade to an unfair exam, bad luck, our own inability, or lack of preparation (Weiner, 1985)
  • When people repeatedly view stimuli flashed too briefly for them to perceive and recall, they then come to prefer the stimuli. Without being consciously aware of having seen the stimuli, they rather like them. A subliminally flashed smiling or angry face can also prime us to feel better or worse about a follow-up stimulus (Myers 503).
  • In summary, particular emotional responses - especially simple likes, dislikes, and fears - involve no conscious thinking

Polygraph
    • a lie detection machine that measures physical responses that accompany emotion such as changes in heart beat and perspiration and breathing changes
    • It can be called a fear detection machine
    • Leading questions can distort the results of the test
    • Psychologists agree that some savvy criminals and spies could beat the test by augmenting their arousal to control questions. (Myers)
      • Control Question ex: Up to age 18, did you ever physically harm anyone?
    • One of the problems that it had was the fact that some innocent person also could respond with heightened tensions to the accusations they were being charged with (Myers).
    • Although they detect lies at a rate better than chance, they aren't accurate enough to be used in business and government (Myers)
    • Polygraphs measure several physiological indicators of emotion. Although they detect lies at a rate better than chance, they are not accurate enough to justify their widespread use in business and government. The use of guilty knowledge questions may increase the accuracy of these tests. (Myers)
      • in 1984, Benjamin Kleinmuntz and Julian Szucko conducted a polygraph study where over a third of the innocent people tested were declared as guilty and almost a fourth of the guilty would have been declared as innocent.(Myers 509)
(Myers)
Emotion and Physiology
Autonomic Nervous System controls Physiological Arousal
Sympathetic
Division (arousing)

Parasympathetic
Division (calming)
Pupils Dilate
Eyes
Pupils contract
Decreases
Salivation
Increases
Perspires
Skin
Dries
Increases
Respiration
Decreases
Accelerates
Heart
Slows
Inhibits
Digestion
Activates
Secrete Stress
Hormones
Adrenal
Glands
Decrease Secretion
of Stress Hormones
(Myers)

  • People who experience negative emotions or have negative personalities show more more brain activity in the right prefrontal lobe. Depression prone people also show more activity in the right frontal lobe. (Myers)
  • People with positive emotions and personalities show more activity in the left frontal lobe. The left frontal lobe's rich supply of dopamine receptors may help explain why a peppy left hemisphere correlates with a perky disposition. (Myers)
  • The hormones Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are responsible for arousing the body by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and blood levels.
  • Sometimes more than one emotion can have a similar physiological reaction.
  • Ex. Elated excitement and panicky fear both involve an increase in heart rate, pupil dilation, and increased respiration, yet we can usually distinguish the two emotions. This shows that physiological responses alone are not determinants of emotion, but that a combination of physical arousal and cognitive processing help to determine what emotions we feel.
    • ex: As you hear a motorcycle rev up behind you on a dark street, your muscles tense, your stomach develops butterflies, your mouth becomes dry (Meyers). Which demonstrates some obvious physiological reactions to fear.
  • Emotions differ in which brain circuits they use. Observers shown fearful faces show more amygdala brain activity than those watching angry faces (Meyers 507)
Two Dimensions of Emotion
  • Many emotions can be placed along two basic dimensions:arousal (High/low) and valence (positive/negative)
  • The Valence dimension can be more commonly seen in people that label arousal as energizing.(Myers)
  • Arousal (high vs. low) (Myers)
  • Valence (pleasant or positive vs. unpleasant or negative) (Myers)
  • With a low arousal and a positive valence we feel "pleasant" or "relaxed" (Myers).
  • With a high arousal and a positive valence we feel "joy" (Myers).
  • With a low arousal and a negative valence we feel "sadness" (Myers).
  • Two basic emotions: Arousal(high versus low), valence(pleasant, or positive, versus pleasant, or negative). (Myers)
-When two emotions are similarly arousing and negative (or positive) the physiological responses that accompany them are nearly indistinguishable to an untrained observer. Scientists have discovered subtle differences in activity in the brain's cortical areas. (Myers)
  • Cognition and Emotion: Many important emotions arise from our interpretations or inferences.We are able to change our emotions by changing our thinking.(Myers)
  • The sympathetic division of our autonomic nervous system directs the adrenal glands atop the kidneys to release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). (Myers,506)
    • These increase our heart rate, blood pressure and blood sugar levels. (Myers, 506)
  • Prolonged physical arousal produced by sustained stress taxes the body and too little arousal can be just as disruptive. (Myers 506)

Embodied Emotion
  • The body responds to emotional arousal in noticeable ways (muscles tense, stomach develops butterflies, mouth becomes dry, palms sweat, blood rushing to legs, ext), and less noticeable ways (more sugar in the bloodstream, digestion slows) (Myers).
  • This type of emotion is often labeled 'Body language' and people often detect others' body language to read their emotions as it expresses it just as well as facial expressions do.
  • Emotional arousal Elated excitement and panicky fear involve similar physiological arousal. That allows us to flip rapidly between the two emotions.(Myers)
  • Emotion and Physiology-Emotions are both psychological and physiological.Much of the physiological activity is controlled by the autonomic nervous system's sympathetic(arousing)and parasympathetic(calming) division. our performance on a task is usually best when arousal is moderate, though this varies with the difficulty of the task.(Myers)
  • The general arousal needed for an easy task is a high amount of arousal and high performance level and difficult tasks need low arousal and high performance level to be completed.
  • With easy or well-learned tasks, peak performance comes with relatively high arousal. With more difficult or unrehearsed tasks, optimal arousal is somewhat lower. Ex. Runners, who are performing a well-learned task, usually achieve their peak performances when highly aroused by competition. Basketball players shooting free throws - a less automatic skill - may not perform quite as well if a packed fieldhouse makes them hyperaroused. (Myers 506)
  • Fear, anger, and sexual arousal feel different to us. Although fear and joy can prompt a similar increased heart rate, they stimulate different facial muscles. During joy, muscles in the cheek and under the eye pull into a smile (Witvliet & Vrana, 1995). Observers watching fearful faces show more amygdala brain activity than do those watching angry faces (Myers 507).
Expressed Emotion
  • Nonverbal communication, like facial expressions, plays into the detection of emotion (Myers).
    • Ex) "A firm handshake conveys an outgoing, expressive personality, A gaze, stare, communicate intimacy, submission, or dominance"(Myers 510).
    • Anger is the easiest emotion to recognize by a simple glance (Myers).
    • Robert Kestenbaum uncovered that fear and anger is mostly detectable from the eyes while happiness is most noticeable from the mouth (Myers).
    • Personal experiences can allow us to pick up on certain emotions much more readily than other emotions (Myers).
  • Simple ways to detect people's emotions are their body positions, tone of voice, and their facial expression.
  • Introverts are better at picking up on expressed emotions than extraverts; extraverts tend to be easier to read as shown in a study by Robert Rosenthal and Judith Hall (Meyers)
  • Hard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs of emotion you may be trying to conceal (Meyers)
Experienced Emotion
Carroll Izard isolated 10 basic emotions:joy, interest-excitement, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt. Most are present in infancy. (Myers)
  • Fear- is adaptive and can be traumatic. It's an alarm system that prepares our bodies to flee danger. (Myers)
    • The amygdala (an emotional control center) plays a key role in associating various emotions, including fear, with certain situations. (Myers) Ex: A man named Charles Whitman killed his mother and wife and then went on a rampage and killed 38 people. After an Autopsy it was found the man had a tumor in the system containing the amygdala (Meyer).
    • Nerves running out from these knots of neural tissue, one on either side of the brain's center, carry messages that control heart rate, sweating, stress hormones, attention, an other engines that rev up in threatening situations. (Myers)
    • Although we seem biologically predisposed to aquire some fears, what we learn through experience and observation best explain the variety of human fears. (Myers)
  • Anger- is often evoked by events that not only are frustrating or insulting but also are interpreted as willful, unjustified, and avoidable (Myers).
    • As people experience negative emotions such as anger the right hemisphere becomes more electrically active (Myers).

  • **Subjective well-being- self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. (Myers)
    • Adaption-level phenomenon- our tendency to form judgments (of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a prior "neutral" level defined by our prior experience. (Myers)
    • Relative Deprivation- the feeling that we are far worse than those around us.
      • Ex: a worker who sees everyone around him getting promoted faster than him may cause the worker to feel dissatisfied with his position in his job.
  • We overestimate the long-term emotional impact of significant events, and underestimate our capacity to adapt. (Myers)
  • It is estimated that 50% of the difference among peoples happiness is heritable.(Myers)
  • Individuals with more active right frontal lobes tend to be less cheerful and more likely to be depressed.(Myers)

Culture and Emotional Expression

- LauraCelina LauraCelina perception of emotion is influenced by culture
  • body language
  • gestures
  • tone
  • facial expressions
all differ depending on the culture

-Facial expressions such as happiness and fear are common worldwide. In communal cultures that value interdependence, intense displays of potentially disruptive emotions are infrequent. (Myers)
- The meaning of gestures varies with the culture. For example, a pointer finer and thumb on the forehead means loser but someone from another country could not know that. There are some expressions that are world round. Children's facial expressions- even those of blind children have never seen a face- are also universal.(Myers)



Expressed Emotion
There are many other ways to understand what the person is feeling such as using their bodies, listening to the tone of their voice, or study their facial expressions.**
  • Nonverbal communications- an example of this would be if you shook someones hand, if it was firm it gives off the impression of outgoing and confident, if it was limp and weak it gives off the impression of it's opposite.
  • Nonverbal cues- to help see and feel the emotions of those around us we use things like tone or an expression. For example, if you were watching a film with no sound, you could tell if the person was happy, angry, or sad. The way we see this is by looking at the eyes to detect anger or fear, and mouth to see happiness.
  • Meanings of such nonverbal communications, like gestures can vary greatly depending on the culture. For example it is impolite to make eye contact when in Japan and the "OK" symbol is seen as an insult in many other cultures. (Myers)
    • Facial expressions however, such as a smile or a frown, are always culturally universal. However some cultures show emotions more often than others (Asian cultures less likely to show sadness, etc.)
    • Facial expressions also amplify and regulate emotions (Myers).
    • Experience also can sensitize us to particular emotions (Myers 511).
    • Ex. When telling a false story to two friends and looking at one while raising your eyebrows cueing them to go along with the story (hoping they can read your expression and follow along)
  • Physically abused children are more likely than non-abused children to perceive a face as angry. (Myers)
  • People detect an angry face (a threat) faster than they detected a happy one because our emotion-detecting radar detects threats.
  • Suppressing expression comes at a cost. Compared to those who simply watched a distressing film, those who diverted mental energy and attention into suppressing their emotional expressions showed impaired memory for details in the film (Myers).
  • Women are far more likely than men to describe themselves as empathetic and are more able to express happiness. Men express anger better than women though (Myers).
  • Women generally surpass men at reading people's emotional cues (Myers).
  • Electrodes attached to the face of people making facial expressions can tell what kind of emotions they are experiencing (Meyer).
  • Introverts do better at reading others emotions (Myers).
  • Extraverts are themselves easier to read (Myers).
  • Expressions amplify the felt emotion and signal the body to respond accordingly. Emotions then arise from the interplay of cognition, physiology, and expressive behaviors (Myers 517).

Experienced Emotion
Fear- "...fear is adaptive. It's an alarm system that prepares our bodies to flee danger...binds people together...can constrain us for harming one another...(and) focus on a problem and rehearse coping strategies." (Myers)
- Experience can sensitize us to particular emotions, for example, after having been shown a series of faces that morphed from sadness or fear to anger, physically abused children were much quicker than other children to see anger.(Myers)
Carroll Izard isolated 10 such basic emotions such as joy, interst-excitement, suprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, fear, shame, and guilt) most of which are combinations of these 10. (Myers 518)
  • Learning Fear
    • People can be afraid of almost anything (Myers)
    • Afraid due to traumatic experiences or by observations or by social norms ex. spiders
      • Did not take direct experience for people to become fearful of public places due to 9/11
    • Psychologists note that we can actually learnto fear anything. (Myers)
    • Fear is contagious. (Myers)
    • Through such conditioning, the short list of naturally painful and frightening events can multiply into a long list of human fears, fear of driving or flying, fear of mice or cockroaches, fear of closed or open spaces, fear of failure, fear of success, fear of another race or nation. (Myers)
  • The Biology of Fear
    • the Amygdala is the basis of learning fears, which is defined as "that lymbic system neural center deep in the brain."
    • Not only does experience help shape our fears, but genetics does too.
    • we are biologically prepared to learn some fears faster than others (Myers) such as heights, or snakes.
    • experience helps shape our fears or not fears, as well as our genes (Myers)
    • If people have suffered damage to the hippocampus, they still show the emotional reaction, but won't be able to remember why. (Myers)
    • Flight-or-fight is part of the Sympathetic Nervous System
    • There are people with phobias which are irrational fears of certain objects (such as spiders) or situations (such as public speaking) that affect their ability to cope. (Myers)
  • Anger
    • Anger is defined by Myers as a short madness that carries the mind away and that can be many times more hurtful than the injury that caused it.
    • While "blowing off steam" may be calming temporarily, it does not reduce anger in the long run and can even escalade the previous emotion
    • chronic hostility is linked to heart disease. (Myers)
    • Anger is the most readily detectable emotion when hearing emotions conveyed in unknown languages.(Myers)
    • Venting anger immediately may lead you to say things you later regret and/or may lead to retaliation by the other person(Myers)
    • Anger does communicate strength and competence (Tiden5ts. 2001). It can benefit a relationship when it expresses a grievance in way that promote reconciliation rather than retaliation (Myers 522).
    • When anger fuels physically or verbally aggressive acts we later regret, it becomes maladaptive. (Myers)
    • popular books and articles on aggression at times advise that even releasing angry feelings as hostile outbursts can be better than internalizing them (Myers 520)
  • Stress
    • transient stress is caused by temporary challenges (Talamo 132)
    • A strain on someone mentally, physically, and emotionally.
    • fight-or-flight is triggered by stress and the concept was developed by Hans Selye (Talamo 132)
    • general adaptation syndrome develeoped by Walter Cannon
      • involves three levels of response: alarm (arousal), resistance (parasympathetic rebound or calming), and exhaustion (body becomes weak and prone to illness) (Talamo 133)
  • Catharsis- emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that " releasing" aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges.(Myers)
    • However, catharsis usually fails to cleanse one's rage. Expressing anger breeds more anger. (Myers)
    • The frustration-aggression theory suggests that frustration causes aggression, but when the source of frustration can not be solved or neutralized, people tend to focus the aggression on an innocent "scapegoat"
  • Feel- good, do- good phenomenon- People's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.(Myers)
    • Ex: If one just passed a test they have been studying for, and they see some other person dropped all their papers they are more likely to stop and help the person pick up the papers than not.
    • Eugene just graduated high school and comes across an elderly woman who happens to be carrying a large and heavy package. Without thinking twice, she helps the woman with the package because she is in a very good mood.
  • Subjective well being- self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life. Used along with measures of objective well being- physical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life (Myers).
    • Economic growth in affluent countries has provided no apparent boost to morale or social well-being
    • College and university students worldwide who report high life satisfaction give priority to love over money (Myers 525).
    • Have high self esteem, optimistic, outgoing, agreeable, have close friendships or satisfying marriage, have work and leisure that engage their skills, have meaningful religious faith, sleep well and exercise. Summarized from Deneve & Cooper (1998), Myers (1993, 2000) and Myers & Diener (1995, 1996)
    • Age, gender, education levels, parenthood, physical attractiveness.
Summarized from Deneve & Cooper (1998), Myers (1993, 2000) and Myers & Diener (1995, 1996)
  • How to be happier: Realize that it is not financial, take control of your time, act happy, seek work and leisure that engages your skills, exercise, sleep, pay attention to close relationships, be selfless, be grateful, and nurture your spiritual self (Myers)

Gender and Emotion

  • Judith Hall performed a study on the ability of males and females to detect another individual's emotions.
    • She found that women, on average, did better than men at figuring out how another individual was feeling by being able to better judge the emotions of the other individual.
    • Women, in general, are also better able to figure out whether they are being lied to compared to men.
    • Hill also found that women are able to describe how they feel in more detail as compared to men.
    • Surveys have also found that more women more often consider themselves "empathetic" than men. Empathy involves the ability to directly relate with another.
    • Men, in general, are better at relaying their anger as compared to women.
    • Women's skill at decoding others' emotions may also contribute to their greater emotional responsiveness in positive and negative behaviors. (Myers 512)
      • It is believed that men and women may feel similar emotions in the psychological context, but they not as adept at conveying their emotions as women (Myers 512-513).[1]

Effects of Facial Expressions
Expressions not only communicate emotion, the also amplify and regulate it. (Myers)
Ex. If subtly manipulated into furrowing their brows, people feel sadder while looking at sad photos (Myers)
Ex. Saying the phonemes e and asm which activate smiling muscles, puts people-believe it or not-in a better mood than saying German u (rather like saying the English e and u together), which activates muscles associated with negative emotions. (Myers 516)
Charles Darwin on emotion:
  • the face influences emotion
  • expressing emotion helped us survive
  • we use similar facial emotions for basic emotions
    • retain animal facial displays (Myers)
According to Myers, there are three ingredients of emotion: cognition, expression, and physiology
Happiness The adaptive-level phenomenon- describes out tendency to judge various stimuli relative to those we have previous experienced.(Myers)
  • Our tendency to form judgments (of sounds,of lights, of income) relative to a “neutral” level defined by our prior experience.(Myers)
Emotional expressions may enhance our survival in other ways, too such as:
  • Surprise raises the eyebrows and widens the eyes, enabling us to take in more information.(Myers)
  • Disgust wrinkles the nose, closing it from foul odors.(Myers)
  • Cultures and languages are very similar in the way they "categorize emotion" . (Myers)
Numerous [[#|studies]] show that those that smile throughout the day even they are angry tend to be happier than those that go through the day with a more mellow face.

Relative deprivation- the sense that we make ourselves feel worse when we compare ourselves with others.
  • Example: One will experience this if one lives in a city that has a very high average income and that person does not have an income that is high. This is another example of how each individual compares himself/herself to those around them aka in context.

Lie Detectors**
Polygraph- machine used that attempts to detect lies by measuring physiological responses accompanying emotion.
  • Perspiration
  • cardiovascular changes
  • Breathing changes
Control Question
  • For example: Up to age 18 did you ever physically harm anyone?
Relevant Question
  • For example: Did _ ever threaten to harm you in anyway?
Lie detectors can lie since the polygraph cannot distinguish between anxiety, fear, irritation, and guilt- they all prompt physiological reactivity (Myers).
Cognition + Expression + Physiology = Emotion
Adaptation-level phenomenon - our tendency to form judgments( of sounds, of lights, of income) relative to a "neutral" level defined by our prior experience.(Myers)
  • Ex: Wearing shorts and sandals in 70 degrees Fahrenheit in May, but wearing winter boots with sweat pants in the same degree weather in November.

Sociopath - person with an absence of emotions
Emotions and cognition feeds on each other. Lacks a sense of moral responsibility.
- many times having antisocial and distinctive behaviors that cause them to be distinguishably different and bold




The Effects of Facial Emotions

-expressions communicate emotion as well as amplifys and regulates it
-Studies showed that emotions are attaches to Faciao expressions.
Ex: when a experiment team asked a person to push their eyebrows together and clench their teeth the person felt a bit of anger. While when the person was asked to smile the person would feel happy.

Emotion on and facial expressions can be assumed to be linke to one another since there is supporting Evidence. (516-517)*o
  1. ^ Myers, David G. Myers' Psychology for AP. Seventh ed. New York, NY: Worth, 2004. Print.
                                                        • >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
                                                        • >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Cherry, Kendra. "What Is the James-Lange Theory of Emotion?" About.com Psychology. About.com, 2013. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.