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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.


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  • Rebecca Rupp (1998) notes that out memory "allows us to recognize friends, neighbors, and acquaintances and call them by their names; to knit, type, drive, and play the piano; to speak English, Spanish, or Mandarin Chinese" (Myers 343)
  • Without memory, there would be no savoring joyful moments past, no guilt or anger over painful recollections
  • Memories, unlike videotapes or photocopies, are personally constructed
  • This is why two people can experience the same even but recall it differently (Myers 343)
" your memory is your minds storehouse, the reservoir of your accumulated learning" (Myers).
  • Memory is different for each individual, that is why two people that experience
  • the same event can recall it completely differently (Meyers 343).

  • Memory - Persistence of learning over time via the storage and retrieval of information (Myers).
Example: When learning a new rule in math and trying to remember that rule on a test, you are retrieving it from your memory.
-The modal model suggests that memory is divided into three separate storage areas: sensory, short term, and long term (The Princeton Review).
  • "Your Memory capacity is perhaps most apparent in your recall of unique and highly emotional moments in your past" (Myers 344).
  • Flashbulb Memories are vivid ,precise and long lasting memories that revolve around a person's personal experiences, happy or sad.
ex. Remembering prom night, the lighting, the loudness, the music, and the laughter
Remembering the day you were told someone you love died, the feeling of shock and and the way the world stopped.
An example of a flashbulb memory is how many Americans will remember where they were and what they were doing when they heard about the attack on the twin towers or when they heard that John F. Kennedy was assassinated.
  • Flashbulb Memories- a clear memory of an emotionally significant event (Myers 344)
    • ex: prom, first kiss, first date
  • Iconic Memory - a fleeting photographic memory (Myers).
  • Echoic Memory - An impeccable, though fleeting, memory for auditory sensory images These memories tend to fade after 3 to 4 seconds (Myers).
  • Memory as information processing
    • similar to a computer: it writes a file, saves a disk and reads from the disk
  • Implicit Memory - learning how to do something (Myers)
    • They are also called procedural or non-declarative memories (Myers)
    • beyond conscious consideration and would include procedural memory, priming, and classical conditioning (Talamo)
    • Example: learning how to ride a bike or learning how to swim
  • Explicit Memory - general knowledge, facts, personal events or experiences just like knowing our class schedule.
    • a person can consciously consider and retrieve information, like episodic or semantic memory (Talamo)
    • ex: having played golf on a new course, they will forget it completely, yet the more they play the course, the more their game will improve because they will remember the ways of the course (Myers).
  • Amnesia - unable to form new memories (Myers). also it is the loss of memory from damage to the brain or from use of drugs such as hallucinogens and alcohol.
  • it can happen at different extremities and temporarily but it could be treated with medicactions
  • Alzheimer's disease- a disease found in the older population found to exhibit memory loss in the people that have it. Alzheimers disease is the slow destruction of neurons. Neurons will keep dying off until they cannot communicate anymore.
  • Topographic memory - the ability to know where one is using visual cues and familiar surroundings
  • hyperthymestic syndrome - the inability to forget or process small details that would normally just have been overlooked or forgotten
  • There do exist cases of photographic memory, also known as eidetic memory, in which individuals are able to recall significant amounts of information accurately.
    • For example, McEntarrffer and Weseley, write of Alexandra Luria, a psychologist, who observed a subject who was able to recall lists containing up to 70 integers or letters of the alphabet. Surprisingly, the subject in some instances was able to reiterate a list even 15 years later.
    • Psychologists claim that individuals with eidetic memory have an enhanced ability to to store accurate visual representations of what the observe. [1]

  • Improving memory
    • Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall.
    • Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material.
    • Make the material personally meaningful. It is better to form images, understand and organize information, relate the material to what you already know or have experienced, and put it in your own words. Without such cues, you may find yourself stuck when a question uses phrasing different from the rote forms you memorized. (Myers 382)
    • To remember a list of unfamiliar items, use mnemonic devices such as an acronym. (Ex. Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally, witch stands for the order if operations in Algebra.)
    • Refresh your memory by activating retrieval cues.
    • Recall events while they are fresh, before you encounter possible misinformation.
    • Minimize interference. Do not study in close proximity topics that are likely to interfere with each other. (Myers)
    • Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to help determine what you do not yet know.

Information processing
In order to remember any event we need to have that information processed into our [[#|brain]], be able to keep that information and then at a later be able to recover it.

We process information in three key ways- by encoding its meaning, by visualizing it, and by mentally organizing it. (Myers)
  • Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system for example, by extracting meaning. The brain encoding is like a computer translating what you type into a electronic language. (Myers) It's getting the information into our brain.
  • Storage: the retention of encoded information overtime.
  • Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory storage. [Myers]
    • information is retrieved with the help of association cues.
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin's three-stage processing model of memory:
  • Sensory Memory: the immediate initial recording of sensory information in the memory system (Myers).
    • information first enters the memory system through the senses.
    • Example: we register and briefly store visual images via iconic memory and sounds via echoic memory.(Myers 361)
  • Short-term memory: Activated memory that hold a few items briefly. For example, the seven digits of a phone while dialing the number before the information is stored or forgotten. Working memory is a similar concept that focuses more on the processing of briefly stored information (Myers)
  • Ex: Working memory is like a computer's random-access memory (RAM), which integrates information coming in from our keyboard with that retrieved from long-term storage on the hard drive (Myers 346)
    • is limited not only in duration, but also in capacity. (Myers)
      • typically stores 5-9 bits of information. (Myers)
    • Maintenance Rehearsal- is simple repetition to keep an item in short term memory
      • Ex: repeating a phone number
    • Elaborative Rehearsal- involves organization and understanding of the information that has been encoded in order to transfer to long term memory
      • Ex: remembering someone's name at a party
    • primacy- remembering the first items
      • lasts longer than a day
    • recency- remembering the last items
      • begins to fade in about a day
    • Humans store vast amounts of information in long-term memory
Working Memory: the processing of information that has just been stored.
    • Includes a verbal and a visual component which allow us to process images and words simultaneously
    • Clarifies the short term memory concept by focusing more on how we intend, to rehearse, and manipulate information in temporary storage.(Myers)
      • Why we can talk (verbal processing) while driving (visual processing) but we can't effectively have 2 conversations at once (since each subsystem is limited)
  • Long-term Potential (LTP): provides a neural basis for learning and remembering associations. (Myers)
  • Double Receptor sites: Electron microscope images show just one receptor site reaching toward a sending neuron before long-term potentiation and two afterwards.(Myers) This explains why long-term potentiation can help us remember and learn things and store them in the "long-term", Since more receptor sites are receiving information, there is a higher chance that the information will be remembered.
  • EX: drugs that interfere block LTP interfere with learning
  • Sometimes memory can cause people extreme mental anguish, Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) was found to disrupt memory for recent experiences, but leaves most memories intact which can alleviate depression. (Myers)
  • Serial Position effect: The collective idea of the primacy and the recency effect is known as the serial position effect.

: The process in which the thalamus and the frontal lobe causes the neurons to work actively so that the memory is more vivid.
  • Semantic encoding processing a word deeply by its meaning) produces better recognition of it at a later time than shallow processing (Myers 350)
The first step for memory occurs automatically, thus helping you by being able to process information and many other things at ones. The amount remembered depends on the time spent learning (Myers).
  • Parallel processing: many aspects are processed simultaneously
  • Automatic Processing- unconscious encoding of incidental information and of well-learned information (word meanings)
    • such as space, time, and frequency.
    • ex) To guess where you left your coat, you can re-create a sequence of the days events
    • some times of automatic processing we learn ex: reading reversed sentences. (Myers)
    • Happens with little effort, without our awareness, and without interfering with our thinking
    • difficult to shut off (Myers)
    • sometimes effortful processing becomes automatic
        • Ex. What we ate yesterday was processed automatically into our brain without us realizing it.
        • Ex: A student who reads and writes from left to right learns to read from right to left because he is Hebrew.
  • Effortful Processing- processing that needs our attention and conscious effort
  • without effortful processing, we never notice or process much of what we sense (Myers.)
    • for example, learning in school, or getting ready for a test and studying.
    • The amount remembered, depends on the time spent learning (Myers)
    • after some practice, can become automatic (myers)
    • additional rehearsal(overlearning) increases retention (Myers)
    • When reading this Wiki we are trying to encode the information and remember it.
  • Next in line effect- not being able to remember what the person before you said and recall it.
    • such as names or phone numbers.
    • This is because we are focused on our own performance and often fail to process the last person's words. (Meyers 348).
  • Information presented in the seconds before sleep are seldom remembered. But information processed in the hour before sleep is well remembered.(Meyers 348)
    • This is why cramming up until the early morning of a test is discouraged
      • "Spaced study beats cramming" (Myers 349).
      • This is also called the spacing effect, which means that distributed study yields better retention than cramming (Myers).
  • Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. Without the opportunity for rehearsal, "sleep learning" does not occur.(Meyers 348)
  • Rehearsal can be done by any of these three ways
    • Visual encoding: the encoding of picture images. (Myers)
    • Acoustic encoding: the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words. (Myers)
    • Semantic encoding: the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words. (Myers)
      • This form of encoding explains why people that are told the same sentence may not repeat the sentence identically.
    • Maintenance rehearsal is simple repetition to keep an item in the short term memory until it can be used (The Princeton Review.
    • This was shown long ago by the pioneering researcher of verbal memory, German philosopher Hermann Ebbinghaus. (Myers 347)
  • Imagery: mental pictures that help process information
    • very helpful when paired up with semantic encoding (giving meaning to what it is we see)
  • spacing effect: the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice (Myers)
    • We retain information better when rehearsal is distributed over time
    • Ex. Reviewing your notes the day after you take them, two days after then, and another two days after then, you will remember more information from those notes for a test in the upcoming weeks than when cramming right before the test.
    • Events that are more spaced out are more likely to recur (Meyers 348).
  • self-reference effect: better recall if something can be related to ourselves.
  • serial position effect: our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list (Myers) It is easier to recall the last items in a list but after a short delay it might be easier for the individual to recall the items that were at the beginning of the list.
  • Example: If a list of random words is read to you out loud, and you were asked to try to write down as many as the words as you could remember, the words that would be the easiest to recall would be the first and last words you heard.
  • Our memory system processes information not just by repetitive rehearsal but also by encoding its significant features (Myers 349).
    • Memory Aids
      • Mnemonic: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices (Myers)
        • Named after the Greek word for "memory". (Myers)
        • Example: "method of loci", using a familiar series of locations to visually associate with topics to remember the topic (Myers).
        • Example: "Peg-word" system, using the jingle "one is a bun, two is a shoe, three is a tree, four is a door, five is a hive, six is sticks, seven is heaven eight is a gate, nine is swine, ten is a hen" to visually associate with to-be-remembered items (Myers).
        • For example, the mnemonic used in math class to remember the order of operations: "Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally."
      • Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units. (Myers)
      • Chunking occurs so naturally that we take it for granted. (Meyers 352) For example, if you're are a native English speaker, you can reproduce perfectly about 150 words in three phrases or line segments that are put together. (Meyers 352)
      • Example: acronyms: creating words or sentences from the first letters of words to be remembered (Myers).
      • Example: telephone numbers are chunked into three numbers for area code and three and four numbers for actual numbers [like (345) 867-5309] (Myers).
      • Example: People who are literate in Chinese were able to learn how to write the characters by chunking the strokes of each symbol. (Myers)
      • Hierachies: a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts (Myers). Organizing our notes by what is more important, like titles and headings, allow us to better remember the information. Charts can prove extremely helpful as they let us learn the overall concepts of a given chapter (Myers).
  • A phenomenon called self-reference effect is when we remember things that involve ourselves.
-Perhaps because the last items are still in short-term memory, people briefly recall them especially quickly and well. But after a delay-after the shift their attention
from the last items-their recall is best for the first items. (Meyers 349)
  • Encoding-
    • Meaning (semantic encoding)
    • Imagery (Visual encoding) Mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. (Myers 351)
      • Chunks
      • Hierarchies: When the words were organized into groups, recall was two to three times better. Such results show the benefits of organizing what you study - of giving special attention to chapter outlines, headings, previews, and review paragraphs and questions. (Myers 353)

Learning items can interfere with retrieving others, especially when the items are similar. (Myers)
Positive [[#|transfer]] - when old and new information compete with each other, and interference occurs. ex: Knowing Latin may help you learn French, (Myers)
  • Proactive (forward-acting) Interference- the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.(Myers)
    • For example, if you get a new phone number, the old one may interfere. (Myers)
  • Retroactive (backward-acting) Interference- the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information. (Myers.)
    • For example, learning new students' names typically interfere with a teacher's recall of the names of the previous students (Myers)
  • Positive Transfer - when old and new information compete with each other that interference occurs (Myers)

Motivated forgetting
  • Repression- In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories. According to Freud these memories could be retrieved later by some cue or therapy.(Myers)
    • For example, you witness seeing a family member get murdered in front of you. You can repress this pain memory to in order to reduce the amount of anxiety within you.
  • To protect our self-concept and to minimize anxiety, we supposedly repress painful memories (Myers 370)
  • Submerged memories still linger, with patience and effort certain cues can bring up those memories in therapy sessions.(Freud)
  • memories may also fade after storage- often rapidly at first, and then leveling off. (Myers)
  • Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. As we process information, we filter, alter, or lose much of it. (Myers)
  • Forgetting occur more when a person stays awake and experience other new material (without interfering events, recall is better) (Myers).
  • In experiments that parallel the cookie-memory phenomenon, Michael Ross and his colleagues found that people unknowingly revise their own histories. (Myers)

Memory Construction
Research on memory construction reveals that memories reflect a person's biases and assumptions.(Myers)
  • Misinformation effect- incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.(Myers)
    • After exposure to subtle misinformation, many people misremember. (Myers)
    • They have miscalled a yield sign as a stop sign, hammers as screwdrivers, Coke cans as peanut cans, etc. (Myers)
    • As memory fades with the time following the event, the injection of misinformation becomes easier.(Myers)
    • So unwitting is the misinformation effect that people later find it nearly impossible to discriminate between their real and suggested events.(Myers)
    • As we recount an experience, we fill in gaps with plausible guesses and assumptions. After more retelling, we often recall the guessed details as if we had observed them.(Myers)
  • Source amnesia: attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. It is also called source misattribution.(Myers)
    • Thus , we may recognize someone but have no idea where we have seen the person. Or imagine or dream an event and later aren't sure if it really happened. (Myers)
  • Although, false memories created by suggested misinformation and misattributed sources may feel as real as true memories, brain scans show they aren't (Myers).
  • In a study, people couldn't tell the difference of false and true memories, but their brains could- by recalling a word(candy) that was heard before the left side of temporal lobe lit up. While as it did not respond to the other falsely recognized word (sweet). (Myers).
  • Memories derived from experience have more details than memories derived from imagination (Myers).
  • Repeatedly imagining nonexistent actions and events can create false memories. (Myers)
  • False memories from imagined events are more focused on the "gist," or the feelings and meanings associated to with the supposed event. These "gist" memories can often outlast true memories because of their durability (Myers).

Storage: Retaining Information
  • Iconic Memory- Associated with visual stimuli, also known as photographic or picture-image memory that last no more than a second.
  • Ex: "When George Sperling flashed a group of letters for 1/20th of a second, people could recall only about half of the letters. But when signaled to recall a particular row immediately after the letters had disappeared, they could do so with near perfect accuracy" (Myers 354)
  • For an instant, our eyes register the exact layout of a scene and we can recall any part of it in amazing detail but only for a few tenths of a second. If Sperling delayed the tone signal by more than a second, the iconic memory was gone and subjects would recall about only half the letters. (Myers 354)
    • The last few words spoken seem to linger for 3 to 4 seconds.(Myers)
  • Long Term Potentiation (LTP)- An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory (Myers)
  • When we are greatly aroused, our stress hormones help make memories indelible (Myers).
  • Short-Term Memory
    • also known as the primary memory, is limited to only around 7 bits or so of information
    • short-term recall is usually better for information we hear, not necessarily information we see
    • At any given moment, we can consciously process only a very limited amount of information (Meyers 355).
  • Long-Term Memory
    • Our capacity for storing long-term memories is essentially limitless
    • The average adult has about a billion bits of information stored in their brains (Meyers 356).

The Brain & Memory
  • The Hippo-campus
    • A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage. (Myers)
    • Damage to the hippo-campus disrupts some types of memory. Like the cortex, the hippo-campus is lateralized. Damage to the left or right hippo-campus seems to produced different results.(Myers)
    • Studies show that monkeys who during surgery lost their hippo-campus were not able to recall things learned from the previous month but recalled older memories just fine.
    • The Hippo-campus is primarily known for converting short term memories to long term memories
  • The Temporal Lobe includes very important structures of the brain that aid in memory such as the Hippo-campus and amygdala.
    • Limbic System: A system located inside of the medial temporal lobe which includes the hippo-campus, amygdala, cingulate gyrus and the thalamus.
    • Amygdala: The Amygdala's primary function is to contain information such as emotional behavior and also the memory of smells.

Storing Implicit and Explicit Memories
  • Amnesia-The loss of Memory.(Myers)
    • amnesia doesn't always affect things like knowledge or facts, but recognizing people or places may be difficult
  • Implicit Memory-Retention independent of conscious recollection. Processed by the cerebellum. Also called procedural memory.(Myers)
  • Explicit Memory-Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." Also called declarative memory.(Myers) For example, a patient with amnesia can learn how to do something but they may not even know that they know how to do it.
  • We process and store our explicit and implicit memories separately.(Myers)
  • Hippo-campus- A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.(Myers)
  • Our conscious minds are blank, not only because we index so much of our explicit memory by words that nonspeaking children have not learned, but also because the hippo-campus is one of the last brain structure to mature (Myers 361).
  • Damage to the hippo-campus disrupts memory. If damage is to the left of the brain, patients have been noted to have problems remembering verbal information, while those who receive damage to the right hemisphere experience trouble recalling visual designs and locations. Mysteriously, they have opposite results for each (Myers 360).
  • Amygdala- involves emotional memories. It helps people learning through fear conditioning (Myers)

Retrieval Cues
  • Priming- The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory. (Myers)
- Philosopher-psychologist William James referred to priming as the "wakening of associations." Often our associations are activated, or primed, without our awareness. (Myers 362)
  • Recognition- A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple choice test. (Myers)
    • recognition if often easier than recall since the brain is primed to recognized things, not necessarily to recall things that may not be important to survival
  • Relearning- A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved learning material for a second time. (Myers)
  • Recall- a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test. (Myers)
  • Deja vu- That eerie sensĂ© that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience. (Myers)
  • Mood serves as a retrieval cue, activating other memories associated with the same emotion. (Myers)
  • Mood-congruent memory: the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood (Myers).
    • Studies involving adolescents opinions of parents seem to convey this point. When adolescents are in a depressed, unhappy, or angry state, they are more likely to give a degrading view of their parents. However, when they are happy, they are more likely to consider their parents as loving and compassionate. This has to do with the phenomenon of remembering bad qualities associated with the adolescents' parents when in a bad mood, and remembering positive characteristics of the adolescents' parents when in a good mood.
    • Mood also influences how one perceives another individual's actions. Myers gives the example of how a glare from another person can be seen as an expression of attentiveness or concern when you are in a good mood, while it will be perceived as a glare when you are in a bad mood (Myers 364).[2]

  • State-dependent memory involves an increase in the ability to recall details that were encoded in a certain state of consciousness, when being in the the state of consciousness for when the particular memory was formed.
    • For example, if you learn new information about, say chemistry, while being extremely drowsy and sleepy prior going to sleep, it may be harder to access that information the next morning when you wake up. You are more likely to remember that the next night, when you are in a sleepy and drowsy state before going to sleep.
    • This also occurs when being drunk. For example, if you place your keys in a part of the house you generally do not, while being drunk, you may have difficulty when you are sober remembering where you put the keys. If you are to become drunk again, you will be more likely to remember the location of the keys
  • Sometimes we undergo retrieval failure. We store in long term memory what's important to us or what we've rehearsed. But sometimes, even stored information cannot be accessed, which leads to forgetting. (Myers)[3]

-Memory failures can be failures of encoding (info never gets in), storage (fading of the memory record),or retrieval (a lack of retrieval cues or interference from other learning) (Myers)
-"If we remembered everything, we should on most occasions be as ill off as if we remembered nothing" (William James)
-Much of what we come across in daily life we forget, it is just what we choose to sense or notice that we might remember
-Drugs that block neurotransmitters, like alcohol for example, can disrupt the storage of memory
-While forgetting is generally an encoding failure in that the information was never properly stored in our long term memory, it is also a result of "change blindness." Many of the sensations we feel, we do not remember, because they may be insignificant to us. Our brains filter much of the unnecessary information that we are constantly receiving through our senses so as to not overwhelm our mind. (Myers)

- If we wouldn't be able to forget anything we would have a difficult time thinking abstractly, generalizing, organizing and evaluating. A good memory is helpful but so the ability to forget (Myers).
Researcher Daniel Schacter enumerates seven ways our memories fail us. (Seven sins of memory)
-Three sins of forgetting:
  • Absent-mindedness-inattention to details produces encoding failure
-EX: We don't think about where we place the keys, we just place them anywhere and move on.(Myers)
  • Transcience- storage decay over time (unused information fades)
  • Storage decay - When we learn something, we quickly forget it in the first few days but then our retention of the information stays constant
-EX: In my childhood, i knew my friends phone number by memory, but since i have not seen him now in over ten years, i do not remember the full number anymore.
  • Blocking-inaccessibility if stored information (Myers)
    • ex: i studied all night for that exam but three days later somebody asked me a question and it was on the tip of my tongue but I couldn't recall
-One sin of intrusion
  • Persistence-unwanted memories(Myers)
  • ex:being haunted by images of sexual assault (Meyers 366)
- Three sins of distortion:
  • Misattribution- confusing the source of information.
- EX- Putting words in someone else's mouth or remembering a movie scene as an actual happening.
  • Suggestibility- the lingering effects of misinformation
-EX: A leading question "Did Mr. Jones touch your private parts?"- later becomes a young child's false memory.
  • Bias- belief-colored recollections
-EX- someone's current feelings toward their fiancé may color their recalled initial feelings (Myers)

  • Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve - initially, information is lost very rapidly after it is learned, however, it is leveled off with time (Meyers). After learning lists of nonsense syllables, Ebbinghaus studied how much he retained up to 30 days (Meyers 367)

Memory Construction: (Myers)
  • Misinformation effect: incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event (Myers). Ex: A person who witnesses a murder after watching a television program may blame the murder on someone they saw they saw on the program.
    • Preview
    • Read
    • Think Critically
    • Review
    • Children are easily affected by suggestibility
      • Any memory recalled before the age of 3 is unreliable.(Myers)
      • Many children, when questioned about something from a superior level, tend to simply comply with whatever is being asked whether it is true or not.
    • An eyewitness recall is reliable if:
      • there was no conversation about the recall before the interview
      • if the person leading the interview asks neutral question. If the witness believes that they should answer a certain way, they may modify their response.
    • "When memories are 'recovered' after long periods of amnesia, particular when extraordinary means were used to secure the recovery of memory.there is a high probability that the memories are false."Memoires are constructed differently whenever we recall them. It does not necessarily mean the person is trying to lie but rather that when retrieving the memory recall perspective changes it. (Royal College of Psychiatrists Working Group on Reported Recovered Memories of Child Sexually Abuse (Brandon & Others, 1998)

  • The trouble with inferring child abuse from adult symptoms is that the symptom list is general enough to include everybody at least sometimes (Myers).
  • Clinicians who use "memory work", such as dream analysis or hypnosis, to recover supposedly repressed memories only cause chaos (Myers).
  • Source Amnesia: Attributing to the wrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about or imagine (Myers)
  • Ex) A group of children interact with Hello Kitty by playing games, and reading books. A few months later, their parents read them a story about Hello Kitty and her friends, where Hello Kitty engages in different activities with her friends. When asked "Did Hello Kitty make a cake with you?"- 4 in 10 children will recall things that Hello Kitty did in the book.
Improving Memory

Repressed or Constructed Memories of Abuse?
-Memories recovered under Hynosis or influences of drugs are especially unreliable.
-Injustice happen when innocent people get accused falsely because memories are retrieved differently from how they really occured.

  • Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall: By repeating information, taking a break then repeating it again will increase your chances of memorizing that piece of information
  • Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material: Rehearsal and reflection of the information is key to memorizing it, skimming never works. (Myers)
  • Use mnemonics when trying to remember an unfamiliar list of items and try to associate things with images (Myers 382). For example in math you use PEMDAS using Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
  • Activate retrieval cues to refresh your memory: You can jog your memory and allow thoughts to be activated by cues when you mentally re-create the situation and the mood you were in when the learning originally occurred (Myers).
  • Organize it. By organizing what you have to memorize, you're helping your brain better encode the information in the first place.
  • Concrete strategies for improving memory: spaced study, active rehearsal, encoding of well-organized, vivid,meaningful associations.(Myers)
  • Test yourself to rehearse the information and see what you don't know. (Myers,382)e

  1. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
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  2. ^ Myers, David G. Myers' Psychology for AP. Seventh ed. New York, NY: Worth, 2004. Print.
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  3. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
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