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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.

Motivation


Motivation
  • Motivation - a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior, the force behind our yearning for food, our longing for sexual intimacy, our need to belong, and our desire to achieve (Myers).
  • Like intelligence, motivation is a hypothetical concept: we infer motivation from the behaviors that we observe (Myers 455).
  • motivation is based on drives and incentives (Myers)
    • ex.- The return of salmon to their birthplace (Myers).
      • Although instinct theory failed to explain human motives, the underlying assumption that genes predispose species- typical behavior remains as strong as ever. (Myers)
    • If you get paid for every "A" you get on your report card, your incentive, or reward for that A will be the money that you want to receive
    • An incentive is a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior. (Meyers)
      • ex. getting money/allowance for doing chores at home
  • Incentive- positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us (Myers 457)
  • Arousal Theory- there is an optimum level of arousal, alertness and activation, at which performance on a given task is optimal
  • Optimal arousal- motivated behaviors increase arousal, such as that we will discover and explore more when basic needs are met. (Myers 457)
  • Instinct- a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned (Myers,457)
  • ex: recall imprinting in birds. (Myers)
  • Instinct Theory- posits that the learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do what is necessary to ensure their survival (The Princeton Review)
-Although instinct theory failed to explain human motives, the underlying such
  • Yerkes-Dodson Law: tasks of moderate difficulty make the best performance. Originally developed by Robert M. Yerkes and John Dillingham Dodson. (Talamo 126)
    • also says that low arousal in difficult tasks and high arousal in easy tasks is best (Talamo 126)
    • we are motivated to seek stimuli that make us feel emotion
  • Drive-Reduction Theory - the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state a drive that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
    • Need ----------------> Drive --------------> Drive-reducing behavior
    • ^ food/water ^ hunger/thirst ^ eating/drinking
    • when you have a drive for a need this theory states that it will drive you to do anything to reduce the need
(Myers)
  • Homeostasis- the maintenance of a steady internal state. It is the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level (Myers 457).
  • An example of this is the body's temperature regulation system, similar to a thermostat. (Myers) Both systems operate through feedback loops: Sensors feed room temperature to a control device. If room temperature cools, the control device switches on the furnace. Likewise, if our body temperature cools, blood vessels constrict to conserve warmth, and we feel driven to put on more clothes or seek a warmer environment. (Meyers 457)
  • Not only are we pushed by our need to reduce drivers, we are also pulled by incentives – positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us. This is one way our individual learning histories influence our motives. Depending on our learning, the aroma of fresh roasted peanuts, the site of someone we find attractive, and the threat of disapproval can all motivate our behavior (Myers 457).
  • Similarly, if the water level in our cells drops, sensors detect our need for water and we feel thirsty. (Meyers 457)
  • When body weight falls below a set point, brain sends messages to eat more and excercise less through the lateral hypothalamus (The Princeton Review)
    • ex: if the water level in our cells drops, sensors detect our need for water and we feel thirsty (Meyers 457).
    • ex.- When choosing where to spend your [[#|vacation]], you might want to choose a warm place if what you desire is to spend time in the water, and if you would like to spend your time skiing you might choose a place with snow. Choosing a certain location will be your behavior, which is motivated by the environment (i.e. warm or snow filled place).
  • Our biological rhythms cycle through times of arousal, and some motivated behaviors increase arousal. (Myers)
  • Curiosity drives animals to explore and gain information and resources. (Myers)
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
self- actualization: one's needs to reach a fulfillment in their livesesteem: one's need for recognition, respect and competenceBelonging and Love needs: one's need to be loved and acceptedSafety needs: the need to feel stable and securePsychological Needs: need to have food and shelter
self- actualization: one's needs to reach a fulfillment in their livesesteem: one's need for recognition, respect and competenceBelonging and Love needs: one's need to be loved and acceptedSafety needs: the need to feel stable and securePsychological Needs: need to have food and shelter

  • Hierarchy of Needs- Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with the physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher lever safety needs and then psychological needs become active.(Myers) The pyramid goes from psychological needs at the bottom, to safety needs, to belongingness and love needs, to esteem needs, and at the top self actualization needs. This pyramid is not universal to all cultures, depending on their access to factors such as money and food (Myers)
  • Maslow's pyramid also represents the need that must be met in order to meet other needs. For example, self actualization can not be met if psychological needs are not met. Likewise, if love needs are not met then esteem needs can not be met.
  • The order of such needs is not universal fixed.
  • primary needs include hunger, thirst, and need to reproduce (Talamo 126)
  • secondary drives include money or social acceptance (Talamo 126)
  • In wealthy nations, where most are able to meet basic needs, home-life satisfaction matters more. (Meyers 458)
  • Self-esteem matters most in individualist nations, where the focus ends to be on personal achievements rather than family and community identity. (Myers 458)
  • Hunger, thirst, and the need for sleep are primary drives
  • Optimum Arousal: motivated behaviors increase arousal. Too much stimulation motivate people to seek an optimum level of arousal.(Myers)
  • A Hierarchy of Motives: Maslow's hierarchy of needs expresses the idea of satisfaction and motives are more compelling than others.(Myers)
According to Maslow:


  • According to Maslow's theory, if the basic survival needs are not met, a person will not be able to reach the next level of the hierarchy.
  • According to Maslow, we cannot move up the pyramid until the one before it is met. (Myers,458)
    • ex: We do not focus on our need to feel accepted by others unless our safety and physiological needs are met first. (Myers,458)
    • This assumption, however, is not concrete. For instance, there are cases where physiological needs are not met (being chronically ill), but the person still feel the higher needs. The pyramid is only constructed based on the ideal abstract that should be taken with consideration. 2 needs may accommodate one at the same time.
  • Social Motivation: one way we can provide motivation for ourselves is to delay gratification by holding off on a reward until we perform some less desirable activity, this is called Premack Principle. (Kaplan, AP Psychology Review 2013-2014).
  • Intrinsic Motivation: when you are self motivated without expecting a reward. Extrinsic Motivation: are motivated by external rewards (Kaplan, AP Psychology Review 2013-2014).

Hunger
  • Hunger's inner push primarily originates not from the stomach's contractions but from variations in body chemistry, including hormones that heighten or reduce hunger. (Myers)
  • hunger reflects the interplay of our physiology and our learning
  • blood sugar levels are monitored by the brain's hypothalamus which regulates hunger and body weight
  • The body's chemistry also affects the body's hunger. People and other animals automatically regulate their caloric intake to prevent energy deficits and maintain a stable body weight. (Myers 461)
  • Ghrelin- a hunger-arousing hormone
  • Glucose and Insulin are two hunger-regulating chemicals (Meyers 461)
  • A.L. Washburn worked with Walter Cannon on experimenting what triggered hunger. Walt Cannon intentionally swallowed a balloon. When inflated in his stomach, the balloon transmitted his stomach contractions to a recording device. While his stomach was being monitored, Washburn pressed a key each time he felt hungry. The discovery: Washburn was indeed having stomach contractions whenever he felt hungry. When people with severe obesity undergo bypass surgery that seals off part of the stomach, the remaining stomach then produces much less ghrelin, Which decreased their appetite. (Myers 460).
  • Glucose- blood sugar;circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. If the level gets low then we feel hungry. This is automatically monitored by your brain on the body's internal state(Myers 461).
    • ex) Some peoples nutrition is distributed by eating disorders (Myers 459)
-Increases in the insulin hormone diminish blood glucose, partly by converting it to stored fat. (Meyers 459).
  • It is Noticed that stomach contractions come along with our feelings of hunger
  • example: when you haven't eaten all day you will experience stomach pains.
  • Set point- this is the point where a person's "Weight thermostat" is said to be set. its predisposition is to keep people's bodies as a particular weight level. if a body falls below this weight then there will be an increase in hunger and decrease in metabolic rate in order to gain back all the weight lost. if body weight rises, there will be a decrease in hunger and energy expenditure will increase.
    • Lateral hypothalamus- when you feel hungry; if we were to destroy this area then the person or animal would not eat because it is not stimulated to do so.
    • Ventromedial hypothalamus- stops the hunger; if we were to destroy this area then the person or animal would continue to eat non stop.
    • A person with a high set point would most likely struggle with losing weight because their body would fall below their set point a lot sooner, so their body would increase their hunger and lower their metabolic rate, causing them to regain the weight they lost.
    • A person with a low set point wouldn't really have as hard of a time losing their weight because it would take them longer for their body to fall under their set point, so when their body increases their hunger and lowers their metabolic rate, it does not affect their weight as much.
    • body not only maintains a basal metabolic rate but also food intake and energy output (Myers 462)
  • Basal metabolic rate- this is the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
  • Hypothalamus- located in the forebrain below the thalamus which stimulate the pituitary gland and lets us know when we are hungry.
  • Blood vessels supply the hypothalamus, enabling it to respond to our current blood chemistry as well as to incoming neural information about the body's state (Myers).
  • Metabolism- the chemical process by which a plant or animal uses food, water, ect., to grow and heal and make energy.
  • "Our eagerness to eat is indeed pushed by our physiological state- our body chemistry and hypothalamic activity". (Myers)
  • Hunger and Hormones
    • Insulin - protein secreted by the pancreas; released in small amounts throughout the day, but larger amounts around time of food consumption to control blood glucose levels.
    • Leptin -secreted by fat cells; protein; when there is a large amount it indicates the brain to increase the metabolism and decrease hunger (a fat-detecting hormone)
    • Orexin -secreted by hypothalamus; hormone that triggers hunger
    • Ghrelin- hormone secreted by an empty stomach to send "I'm hungry" signals to the brain (Myers)
      • Sealing off part of the stomach reduces ghrelin
    • PYY - Digestive tract hormone that sends "I'm not hungry" signals to the brain.
  • Taste Preferences: (Myers)
    • Our preferences for sweet and salty taste are genetic while other taste preferences are conditioned. (Myers)
    • Biology- Our body chemistry and environmental factors influence when we feel hunger, but also what we feel hunger for. ex: Feeling tense, we crave sweet food
    • Carbohydrates help boost levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has calming effects (Myers 463)
    • Culture- Our culture affects our taste for food. ex: Bedouins enjoy eating camel's eyes, which Americans find disgusting
    • Countries with hot climates feature recipes with more bacteria -inhibiting spices. (Myers)
    • We humans have a natural dislike of many things that are unfamiliar, including novel foods (especially novel animal-based rather than vegetarian foods). In experiments, people have tried novel fruit drinks or ethnic foods. With repeated exposure, their appreciation for the new taste typically increases; moreover, exposure to one set or novel foods increases our willingness to try another (Pliner, 1982; Pliner & others, 1993). (Myers 463)
Eating Disorders
- Genetics play a role in eating disorders as well, if twins are identical instead of fraternal, the chances of the other twins sharing the disorder are somewhat greater.(Myers)
  • Anorexia nervosa- An eating disorder in which a normal-weight person (usually an adolescent female) diets, and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve. (Myers)
    • Adolescent females with low self-esteem and high- achieving families seem especially prone to eating disorders such as anorexia (Myers)
    • Develops in adolescence, 9 times out of 10 in females. (Myers)
    • Identified in the 1870's, among affluent adolescent girls (Myers).
    • Body Dysmorphia - a distorted body image is what anorexia centers around for most patients
    • Anorexia patients usually come from families that are competitive, high achieving and protective.(Pate & Others, 1992 Yates, 1989, 1990)
    • They set high standards, fret about falling short of expectations, and are intensively concerned with how others perceive them. (Myers 465)
    • Anorexia always begins as a weight loss diet. (Myers)
Bulimia nervosa - an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting or excessive exercise People with bulimia often are not usually thin or overweight.(Myers)

  • people with bulimia will often see themselves as fat even if they aren't.
  • binge eating can typically increase over course of time
  • Most binge-purge eaters are women in their late teens or early twenties. (Myers)
  • Their depression and shame are felt most keenly during and following binges (Myers 464)
  • Unlike anorexia, bulimia is marked by weight fluctuations within or above normal ranges, making it easier to hide. (Myers). Since those affected by Bulimia nervosa may still absorb a large portion of the calories they consume, the weight loss associated with anorexia nervosa may not occur.
  • Families of bulimia patients have a higher than usual incidence of alcoholism, obesity and depression.(Myers)
  • tend to set high standards, are scared to fall for short expectations, and care about what others think of them.
  • Many U.S. women students tend to idealize a body shape considerably thinner than their actual shape. (Myers)
  • body ideals vary across culture and time. In India, woman student rate their ideals as close to their actual shape. In much of African - where poverty, AIDS, and hunger mean thinness, and prosperity means
  • "Cultural pressures, low self esteem and negative emotions (with a possible genetic component) seem to interact with stressful life experiences to produce anorexia and bulimia" (Myers 467).
  • Bulimia Nervosa is also very addictive. Once you start its hard to stop.
  • Families may provide a fertile ground for the growth of eating disorders in certain ways
  • E.g., mothers of girls with eating disorders are themselves often preoccupied with their own weight and on their daughters' weight and appearance (Pike & Rodin, 1991)
  • Anorexia always begins as a weight-loss diet
  • The self-induced vomiting which characterized Bulimia usually begins after a dieter has bypassed diet restrictions and gorged
  • Genetics may also influence susceptibility to eating disorders
  • If twins are identical rather than fraternal, the chances of the other twin's sharing the disorder are somewhat greater (Fairburn & others, 1999)
  • However, there exists a cultural explanation for the fact that anorexia and bulimia occur primarily in women and primarily in weight-wary cultures
  • In a certain national survey, nearly one-half of United States women reported feeling negative about their appearance and preoccupied with being or becoming overweight (Cash & Henry 1995)
  • Women's perceptions are distorted partly by their impression of the body shapes that men consider attractive
  • In a study of almost 500 University of Pennsylvania students, April Fallon and Paul Rozin (1985) discovered not only that women's ideal body weight was less than their current weight, but also that the weight they thought men preferred was less than the weight men actually preferred (Meyers 465)
Sexual Activity:(Myers)
  • Increased sexual activity has led to increased number of teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. This might be linked to the fact that not many teens use contraceptives.
Sex and human values
  • When the education about sex is separated from the context of human values, some students get the idea that sexual intercourse is simply a recreational activity. (Myers)
  • One significance of of sexual intimacy is the expression of our profoundly social nature.
  • Sex at its human best is life uniting and love renewing, affirms our deep need to belong. (Myers)
  • For most adults, a sexual relationship fulfills not only a biological motive, but a social need for intimacy. (Myers)

  • Sexual Motivation
  • Alfred Kinsey attempted to research sexual behaviors but failed due to a biased sample.
  • sex- a physiologically based motive, like hunger, but it is more affected by learning and values
  • Physiology, imagination, and the environment all affect sexual motivation (Myers).
  • Sex was not spoken about so openly in the years past, but now sexual motivation is seen as a way of life to bring new people into this world.
  • Sexual response cycle - four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson : Excitement, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution
    • This cycle is similar to that of a short story.
    • After an orgasm, the body gradually returns to it's unaroused as the engorged genital blood vessels release their accumulated blood-relatively quickly if orgasm has occurred (Myers 469)
    • Refractory period- resting period after orgasm in which a man cannot achieve another orgasm, lengthens in time with aging.
    • a man's refractory period lasts from a couple of minutes to a day or two. (Myers)
    • The female refractory period is not as long, which may make it possible for her to have another orgasm if restimulated during or soon after resolution. (Myers)
  • Estrogen- the primary sex hormone secreted in females, causes development of secondary sex characteristics in females. Production of this hormone peaks at ovulation. (Myers)
  • sexual orientation- an enduring sexual attraction towards members of either ones own gender ( homo-sexual orientation) or the same gender (heterosexual orientation). (Myers)
  • Sexual orientation is linked to genetic influences, prenatal hormones, and even certain brain structures
  • Some motivated behaviors increase arousal, increasing the level one can be satisfied with
  • Sexual arousal can be a cause as well as well as a consequence of increased hormone levels
  • Testosterone- primary male sex hormone secreted from the gonads, greater amounts in males then in females. Causes development of secondary sex characteristics in males.
  • males that have been castrated tend to loose sex drive
  • In nonhuman animals, hormones also stimulate sexual activity. (Myers)
  • Sex hormones have two effects: They direct the development of male and female sex characteristics, and ( especially in nonhuman animals ) they activate sexual behavior.
Sexual Disorders
According to Myers, sexual disorders are problems that consistently impair sexual functioning.
  • Sexual disorders don't appear to be linked to personality disorders(Myers)
  • Some involve sexual motivation, especially lack of sexual energy and arousability. (Myers)
    • People with sexual disorders can be helped by receiving behaviorally orientated therapy where, for example, men may learn ways to control their urge to ejaculate, and women are trained to bring themselves to orgasm.(Myers 469)
  • Ex.- For men Pre-mature ejaculation and Erectile disorder (inability to have or maintain an erection). For women Orgasmic disorder (infrequently or never experiencing an orgasm.)
  • sexual orientation - the sexual attraction towards the same sex or the opposite sex

The Physiology of Sex
-Sex hormones, in combination with the hypothalamus, help our bodies develop and function as either male or female and monitors variations in blood external image arrow-10x10.png (Myers)
-In nonhuman animals, hormones also help stimulate sexual activity. In humans, they influence sexual behavior more loosely, especially once sufficient hormone levels are present (Myers).
-estrogen peaks at ovaulation
- As sex hormones decline, the frequency of having sexual fantasies and intercourse declines as well. (Myers)
The Psychology of Sex
-Sexual arousal depends on both internal and external stimuli.
  • External Stimulus- anything that a person sees, hears or reads that arouses them.(Myers)
    • Though sexually explicit materials are mostly sold to men, in most women who participated in studies reported almost the same amount of arousal to the stimuli as the men.
    • Ex.- Pornography
    • Viewing x-rated films can cause people to devalue their own partner. (Myers)
    • Erotic material may increase viewers acceptance of the false idea that women enjoy rape(Myers).
  • Imagined Stimuli- People who, because of spinal cord injury, have no genital sensation,can still feel sexual desire. as well as in dreams sleep researchers have discovered that genital arousal is in all types of dreams even if the dreams are not sexually arousing(Myers)
    • The brain, it has been said, is our most significant sex organ. (Myers)
    • people who are awake can become sexually aroused by memories of previous sexual activities as well as fantasies.
    • fantasizing about sex does not indicate sexual problems or dissatisfaction(Myers)

Adolescent Sexuality
-Teenagers' physical maturation fosters a sexual dimension to their emerging identity. But sexual expression also varies dramatically with time and culture. (Myers)
-Teens with hgh rather than average intelligence test scores more often delay sex, evidently because they appreciate possible negative consequences and are more often focused on future achievement than on here and now pleasures. (Myers)
Teen [[#|intercourse]] rates are highest in Western Europe. (Myers)
Teen Pregnancy
1. Ignorance- In 80 surveys, fewer than half of the adolescents correctly identified the safe and risky times of the menstrual cycle. (Morrison, 1985)
2. Guilt related to sexual activity- Although sexual inhibitions reduce sexual activity, they also result in lack of planned birth control for those who do engage in sex. (Gerrard & Luus, 1995)
-In a study done at Columbia University in the 1990s, it was found that teens who pledged virginity until marriage, were much likely to have fewer health problems and better self-esteem than adolescence that engaged in sexual activity (Myers 473).
3. Minimal communication about birth control- Many teenagers are uncomfortable discussing contraception with their parents, partners, and peers. (Kotva & Schneider, 1990; Milan & Kilmann, 1987)
4. Alcohol use - sexually active teens are typically alcohol using teens , teens that consume alcohol before coitus often fail to use a contraceptive (national research council 1987)
- Alcohol depresses the brain centers that control judgement, inhibition, and self-awareness, alcohol tends to break down normal restraints (Myers).
5. Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity. (Myers)
-Unprotected sex has led not only to an increase in teen pregnancies, but an increase in sexually transmitted infections (Myers).
-More than 65 percent of new infections occur in persons under the age of 25 (Myers).

The Sexual Response Cycle
  • The fours stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.(Myers)
    • Excitement phase - blood pressure increases in the genitals.
    • Plateau phase: excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase (Myers).
    • Orgasm: characterized by muscle contractions all over the body. The woman reinforces intercourse and increases retention of deposited sperm (Myers).
  • Refractory Period- A resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.(Myers)

Motivation at Work
  • Work is both a bane and a blessing. To want work, but not have it is far less satisfied with life. (Myers)
  • Flow- a completely focused stage of consciousness with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagements of ones skills.
    • For example, artists who get deeply involved in their artworks that they lose track of time and everything else
    • People that experience flow are more motivated by intrinsic rewards and not necessarily the extrinsic rewards that may come for their work like money or fame (Myers).
  • Industrial-organization(I/O) psychology-a sub-field in Psychology that mainly focuses on the application of Psychology in the workforce
      • I/O psychology helps in the training of new employees, the boosting of morale among workers, and increasing productivity
      • Marry the strengths of people with the tasks of organization and the result is often prosperity and profit (Myers 487).
  • Personnel psychology - a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development.
Organizational Psychology
Organizational psychologists assist with efforts to motivate employees and keep them engaged. (Myers)
Organizational psychology- sub-field of I-O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change. (Myers)
Employee Engagement- the extent of workers' involvement, satisfaction, and enthusiasm. (Myers)
  • Theory X- believes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and are only motivated by money.
    • Directive managers are likely to favor Theory X assumptions regarding worker motivation.(Myers)
    • They believe that workers should be directed from above. (Myers)
    • When looked at by employers, they are more likely to hire candidates that fit Theory Y rather than Theory X.
    • when being interviewEd for a job a worker might see if the person has qualities for the job to get better or if the person just wants the job for the money.
  • Theory Y- managers believes that workers are self motivated; workers want to demostrate their skills and abilities if given the challenge and freedom to do so.
  • This type of practice is common in Japan and Sweden.
  • Ex. Cooks who want to reach their goals in becoming a chef, a manager would see what he can do and let him reach his aspiration.
  • ex. given enough freedom and challenge, employees will strive to demonstrate their competence and creativity.
  • Achievement motivation: a desire for significant accomplishment; mastery of things, people, or ideas; and attaining a high standard
  • structured interview: an interview in which an interviewer asks the same job-relevant questions of all interviewees, who are then rated on established evaluation scales.
  • social leadership- group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support. (Myers)
  • Social leaders delegate authority and welcome participation of team members. A leader's personality matters. Effective leaders tend to exude confident "charisma", which motivates others to identify with the group and the group's mission b. This person sets standards, organizing works and has goals. They typically have a directive style, task leaders often have good skills to lead and give good orders. (Myers 494-95)
  • Ex. A team captain or coach who gives a motivational speech to the team before the game to get them hyped
  • task leadership- goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals. (Myers)
  • I/O psychologists have studied how interviews operate. Interviewers often do only a poor to fair job in judged whether an applicant will be successful or not on the job.
    • It is better to rely on aptitude tests, achievement tests, and other practical and objective information, such as success of previous jobs, rather than the intuitive feeling that an interviewer may have.
    • The psychologist, Richard Nisbett, considers this false security of interviewers to be certain of their decisions as the “interviewer illusion” (Myers 489).
    • Additionally, based on the confirmation bias, interviewers will more likely point out examples of triumphant employees that have chosen, rather than give examples of those employees they chose that failed.[1]
Personnel Psychology
A sub-field of industrial-organizational [[#|psychology]] that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development. (Myers)
personnel psychologists also assist organizations in appraisal that boosts motivates indivifuals.
Sexual Orientation
:sexual Orientation is most likely a result of several combining factors such as cultural, biological and cognitive interactions.
  • Our enduring sexual attraction toward members of our own sex or of other sex.
  • Homosexuality is not linked with:
    • Problems in a child's relationship with their parents.
    • Fear or hatred of the opposite sex.
    • Sex hormones in the blood.
    • Whether they were molested as a child or not.
  • German researcher Gunter Dorner has found that homosexuality is linked with exposure to certain prenatal hormones in their mother's womb.
  • Researchers Bailey and Pillard took a sample of homosexual twins and found that 52% of identical twins share sexual orientation with their brother, as opposed to 22% among fraternal twins.
    This suggests that homosexuality is genetic.
  • Studies show that men’s sexual orientation tends to be more strongly felt and less changeable than women’s. (Myers)
  • "Studies indicate that male homosexuality is more likely to be transmitted from the mother's side of the family" -Robert Plomin, John DeFries, Gerald McClearn and Micheal Rutter (Myers)
  • According to Myers, There are some biological correlates of sexual orientation, including brain differences, genetic influences and prenatal hormonal influences.(Myers)
  • Studies show that men with several older brothers are more likely to be gay(Myers)
  • sex is a psychologically based motive, affected by ones learning and values (Myers)
  • In America's 12 largest cities, the percentage of men identifying themselves as homosexual goes up to 9 percent, compared to only 1 percent in rural areas. (Myers)
  • being raised by gay/lesbian parents does not appreciably affect the child's sexual orientation (Myers)
  • there are seven types of sexuality: heterosexual, homosexual, bisexuality, asexuality, poly sexuality, pan sexuality,and transsexualism.
The need to belong
  • aiding to survival
    • social bonds boosted our ancestors survival rate and cooperation in groups enhanced survival.
  • As social creatures, we are deeply motivated not only to eat and to procreate but also to bond with important others. (Myers)
    • According to Mark Leary, our self-esteem is a gauge of how valued and accepted we feel. Due to that, most of our social behavior is shaped to increase our belonging and so we avoid rejection by conforming to group standards. We try to make good impressions on people by monitoring our behavior.
  • Studies were done on how rejection and seclusion affects an individual by Jean Twenge and colleagues. College students were used for the study.
      • One group was told that “they were ‘the type likely to end up alone later in life” as derived from a personality test that was conducted’” (Myers 484).
      • The other group was told something along the lines “that they would have ‘rewarding relationships throughout life’” (Myers 484).
      • The first group of individuals on average formed hostile tendencies and were more likely to become unsociable and befriending. They also did worse in general on aptitude tests that were given afterwards in comparison to the other group.
      • By generalizing the results, the researchers concluded that if college students were to respond in such a drastic way in a controlled environment involving a study, that such occurrences in real-life involving refusal and rejection could have profound effects. [2]
  • Humans feel joy from forming relationships. The need to belong colors our thoughts and emotions. (Myers)

  1. ^ Myers, David G. Myers' Psychology for AP. Seventh ed. New York, NY: Worth, 2004. Print.
  2. ^ Myers, David G. Myers' Psychology for AP. Seventh ed. New York, NY: Worth, 2004. Print.