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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.

  • Perception

  • Perceptions come to us moment by moment, one perception vanishing as the next appears (Myers). It is how we recognize, interpret, and organize our sensations.
  • Subliminal Perception: stimuli presented below the threshold of awareness nso certain stimuli can go unnoticed.
    • Can be both auditory and visual
    • Process of understanding by interpreting information received by your senses
      • Example: When you taste the sourness of a lemon for the first time, you label the taste as sour. This labeling is called top-down processing. Next time you see a lemon you will know what to expect. The expectation based on previous experience influences the perception of the lemon. (Talamo)
  • The brain actively selects, organizes, and assigns meaning to incoming neural messages sent from the sensory receptors (Krieger)
  • Another form of processing is bottom up processing which starts with the body and ends in the brain.study.com
Selective Attention
  • Selective attention- the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus (Myers)
    • This allows a person to see one interpretation at a time (From Bradley & others, 1976)
    • A person will pay attention to what they think is most important to them.
    • While attending to these words, you've also been blocking from awareness information coming from your peripheral vision. (Meyers 232)
    • Ex: "the cocktail party effect, is the ability to attend selectively to only one voice among many."(Meyers 232)
    • An example of selective attention is; there's a cube with white lines and blue circles, if you stare at the x you can only notice the cube if you look up and see the cube floating with the circles behind it or the other way. (Myers)
    • For example, people were asked to watch a one minute video tape in which the images of three men in black shirts were superimposed over the images of three men in white shirts doing the same thing, the viewers were asked to press a key everytime the players in black shirts passed the ball. Midway through the tape, a young woman carrying an umbrella sauntered accross the screen. Most people had focused on the players in black shirts so completely they failed to notice the woman and were astonished to see her when the researchers played the tape again for them. (Meyers 232).
  • "By one estimate, our five senses take in 11,000,000 bits of information per second, of which we consciously process about 40. (Wilson, 2002)
  • There have been some studies that show that unnoticed stimuli can have an effect on a person, to where if played a song or tune while not noticing it, women prefer it later on
  • Ex. When people are doing multiple tasks at one time their performance suffers due to their inability to focus on multiple things at one time. (Myers).
    • Even though we are unaware of something doesn't mean that our brain isn't taking it in and using it (Myers).
    • Cocktail party effect: the ability to selectively attend to one voice among many
    • An example of the cocktail party effect is hearing two different conversations over a headset and being able to pay full attention to only one of the two conversations (Myers).
    • Another example of the cocktail party effect would be if you had multiple friends trying to talk to you, all holding different conversations, you would be able to selectively pay attention to one of them, while the other ones would be slightly blocked out. You would be able to recall everything that one of your friends just said, however if one of your other friends asks whether you were listening, you would be unable to repeat anything they had said because your attention was only on one of the conversations.
    • Change blindness can occur when people exhibit a lack of awareness of their visual surroundings
    • An example of change blindness is while one man distracts another man with something like giving directions, two construction workers will pass through and replace the man that asked for directions while the original man does not notice. (Myers)
Perceptual Illusions
  • A famous perceptual illusion involves perceiving things in a foggy environment as further away than when they are in well lit areas. This was first shown by Helen Ross in 1975 and was used to explain why airplane pilots and drivers have a harder time judging distances in lower visibility (fog), than in the light (Myers 235)
  • Another famous visual illusion involves perceiving lines on a 2 dimensional plane as 3 dimensional. This idea was suggested by Donald Hoffman to show the brain's unique ability to perceive motion in an area where there really is none. This idea also shows how easily we can be mislead by our sense of vision.
  • When vision competes with other sensations, vision usually wins- a phenomenon known as visual capture (Meyers).
  • Visual Capture- "The tendency for vision to dominate the other senses" (Myers 236).
  • Ex: While watching a roller coaster ride on a wrap around movie screen, we may brace ourselves, even though our other sense tell us we're not moving. (Meyers 236)
  • Ex 2: If the sound of a movie comes from a projector behind us, we perceive it as coming from the screen, where we see the actors talking (just like we perceive a voice from the ventriloquist's dummy). (Myers 236)

Perceptual Organization

  • Compared to our other senses, vision usually dominates - visual capture (Myers).
  • An example of visual capture is when watching a movie, the sound comes from behind us but is perceived as coming from the screen in front of us, where we can see the actors' mouths moving (Myers).
  • Gestalt -an organized whole that is perceived as more than it's actual parts. (Myers).
    • An example of the gestalt theory, would be if you looked at a Ferris wheel, you would notice the entire Ferris wheel before noticing each individual part of the Ferris wheel
    • Example, when seeing one picture and not seeing the other that'sp intertwined into the first one.
    • top-down theory: most perceptual stimuli can be broken down into figure ground relationships (Talamo)
  • Gestalt psychologists- the study of how the mind organizes sensations into perceptions. They also showed that to recognize an object, we first need to see it as distinct from surrounding stimuli. (Straub)
  • Illusory Contours- also known as subjective contours, they evoke the perception of an edge in an image even if there is no line that depicts a shape.
    • If you see a pattern in an image even if it is blank.
Ambiguous image- An image that has many interpretations as you perceive it
Form Perception
  • To recognize an object, we must first perceive it as distinct from its surroundings. (Myers)
    • Figure-Ground: the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground). (Myers)
    • in a figure-ground relationship, the same stimulus can trigger more than one perception (Meyers)
    • Ex.: "Web text, buttons, and graphics (figures) need to be bright and obvious against the uncomplicated background (grounds)". (Myers)
  • "Culture and perception: Cultural background influences nearly every aspect of perception, from how our eyes scan a page to our sensitivity to monocular depth cues to our emotional response to color."(Myers)
  • After discriminating a figure from the ground, we must organize the figure into meaning full form through the following processes:
  • Grouping - the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups, according to Myers.
  • Proximity - We group nearby figures together. (Myers)
    • Ex. If you were to draw six separate lines, our eyes would not see the six separate lines but three sets of two lines (Meyers; Pg 237 for image reference).
  • Similarity- Figures similar to each other we group together. We see not six separate lines, but three sets of two.(Myers)
  • Example: When we referrer to a lion,tiger,or cheetah as a cat, we are using grouping.
  • Continuity: Instead of perceiving discontinuous patterns, we perceive smooth continuous ones.
  • Connectedness-when they are uniform and linked, we perceive spots, lines or areas as a single unit.(Myers)
  • Closure- We fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object. (Myers) This can be related to top-down processing. This is because, previous knowledge and experience is being used to fill in the gaps.[1]
  • Example: "thus we assume that the circles (near the right) are complete but partially blocked by the (illusory) triangle. Add nothing more than little line segments that close off the circles and now your brain stops constructing a triangle. (Myers 237) (see image for reference)
Depth Perception
Being able to see objects in three dimensions helps us understand and estimate their distance from us.
Biological maturation predisposes our wariness of things like heights, and experience amplifies it. (Myers)
  • Visual Cliff- a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals. (Myers)
    • Researchers had placed a baby on a table with the clear class connected to it and had the mothers try to coax the baby to go on the glass but the babies were still reluctant and still thought it was an edge (Myers).
    • Since our eyes are about 2 and a half inches apart, our retinas receive slightly different images of the world (Myers).
    • Retinal Disparity - By comparing images from the two eyeballs, the brain computes distance - the greater the disparity between the two images, the closer the objects.
      • Ex: When you hold your fingers directly in front of your nose, your retinas perceive the image differently than expected. So it looks like you have a finger sausage (Meyers).
    • Our brains construct our perceptions
      • sensations are disassembled into info bits that the brain reassembles into its own functional model of the external world.
    • Convergence- A neuromuscular cue caused by the eyes' greater inward turn when they view a near object. (Myers 240). In other words, it is a binocular cue for perceiving depth; the extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object (Myers).
  • Monocular cues - distance cues,such as linear perspective and overlap, available to either eye alone. (Myers).
    • Can be seen by each eye separately (Myers)
    • Artists use monocular cues to convey depth on a flat canvas (Myers).
  • Relative size: Assuming two objects are the same in size, we perceive that the one that casts the smaller retinal image as farther away. (Myers)
    • ex. Drivers perceive pedestrians in the distance as smaller, so a small pedestrian, like a midget or child, would be perceived as farther away than they actually are. (Myers)
    • Ponzo Illusion- An illusion that is based off experience as two lines are placed in an environment, one far away and one closer. Both are the same length but the one that is further is perceived as being longer because experience tells us that if an object is further away but appears to be the same size, it must be a longer object. (Myers 244)
  • -To a driver, distant pedestrians appear smaller, which also means small-looking pedestrians (children) may be sometimes be mispercieved
as more distant than they are. (Meyers 240)
  • Interposition: If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer. (Myers)
  • Relative clarity: Because light from distant objects passes through more atmosphere, we perceive hazy objects as farther away than sharp, clear objects. (Myers)
  • Texture gradient: A gradual change from a coarse, distant to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance. (Myers)
-Objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed. (Meyers 241)
    • Texture gradient can be used to depict depth in images.
  • Relative height: We perceive objects higher in our field of vision as farther away. Also, may contribute to the illusion that vertical dimensions are longer than identical horizontal dimensions. (Myers)
    • With relative height, lower objects seem to be closer.
    • a monocular cue, causes the illusion that taller objects in the background are longer than shorter objects.
    • An example would be when you look out at the horizon. The horizon would most likely be at the middle of your visual field. If you were to see a sailboat passing through your visual field, you would see it below the horizon and perceive it as closer. If you were to see a small cloud floating in the distance, you would see this about the horizon and perceive it as further away than the sailboat.
  • Relative motion: As we move, objects that are actually stable may appear to move.If while riding a train you fix your gaze on some object-say a house-the objects closer than the house appear to move backward. The nearer an object is, the faster it seems to move. (Myers)
    • Objects beyond the fixation point appear to move with you: The farther away an object, the lower its apparent speed.
    • Your brain uses these speed and direction clues to compute objects' relative distances. (Myers 241)
  • linear perspective- the more two parallel lines converge the farther away we perceive them as.
-Linear perspective may contribute to rail-crossing accidents, by leading people to overestimate a train's distance. (Meyers 242)
  • light and shadow- According to Myers, nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes,thus, given two identical objects, the dimmer one appears to be farther away. Shading, produces a sense of depth consistent with the assumed light source. This illusion can also contribute to accidents, as when a fog-shrouded vehicle, or one with only its parking lights on, seems farther away than it is.
  • aerial perspective- based on the observation that atmospheric moisture and dust tend to obscure objects in the distance more than they do nearby objects (Talamo)
  • motion parallax: is the difference in the apparent movement of objects at different distances, when the observer is in motion (The Princeton Review).
  • Convergence: The convergence of eyes towards each other as a focal point(an object) becomes the point of focus. The more the eyes converge, the nearer the objects. (Myers)
  • Visual Allusion: Difference between the appearance of a physical stimulus and its real existence. (Myers)
  • Cognitive Allusion- the brain and the eyes play "mind games". (Encyclopedia)
  • Optical Allusion- they are misleading by making you see something your brain can process, but there is another picture hidden within or underneath.
  • Binocular cues: Depth cues, that depend on the use of two eyes. (Myers)
  • Ex: retinal disparity and convergence.
  • Judging the distance of an object becomes more difficult with only one functioning eye (Myers).
  • retinal disparity- a binocular cue that provides an important cue to the relative distance of different objects. (Myers)
    • By comparing images from the eyes, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object. Example: the floating finger sausage
    • Creators of 3D movies manipulate retinal disparity to create the 3D effect (Myers)
  • Many plane crashes and accidents occur by the way some pilots error in perceiving their environment.(Meyer)
  • "We transform two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional perceptions by using binocular cues, such as retinal disparatiy, and monocular cues, such as the relative sizes of objects" (Myers 247).
  • texture gradient: A gradual change from a course, distinct texture to a fine, indistinct texture signals increasing distance. Objects far away appear smaller and more densely packed.
  • Top down processing :development of pattern recognition
  • Bottom up processing: Information processing due to the data in the surrounding environment
  • ex. When Julie is given a bottle labeled orange juice she drinks from the bottle expecting orange juice although the bottle was actually filled with milk so Julie spits it out, even though Julie actually likes milk she did not expect it so the milk or "orange juice" tasted disgusting.

Motion Perception

Your brain computes motion based partly on its assumption that shrinking objects are retreating (not getting smaller) and enlarging objects are approaching (Meyers).
-The brain interprets a rapid series of slightly varying images as continuous movement known as stroboscopic movement (Myers).
- Our motion perception is not perfect large objects, such as a train, appear to move slower than a smaller object such as a car moving at the same speed-an illusion that contributes to car-train crashes. (Myers)
  • Phi phenomenon- An illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in succession. The brain then interprets the two lights as a single light that is moving back and forth between the two. (Myers)
  • Lighted signs exploit the phi phenomenon with a succession of lights that create the impression of a moving arrow. (Myers)
  • Stroboscopic phenomenon- An illusion of movement caused by a rapid series of slightly varying images. This phenomenon explains how we see movement in motion pictures. This occurs when the view of a moving object is corresponded by a series of short samples.
    (film) (Myers)
  • People also experience the autokinetic effect. If a small beam of light is projected onto the wall in a completely dark room, and participants are asked to continue looking at the light, they will claim that the light is moving, when in reality it is not. [2]
Perceptual Constancy
According to Myers, perceptual constancy is perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change.
  • EX: Recognizing your classmate in matter of seconds, even though your classmate is ahead of you
- through perceptual constancy one identifies things regardless of angles, distance, and illumination in which we see them
  • shape constancy- we perceive the the form of familiar objects as constant even while our retinal images if them change. (Myers) Ex. when a door opens
  • size constancy - how we perceive objects as having a constant size, even while our distance from them varies. (Myers)
    • Example: When we see an airplane in the sky as a tiny figure, we can still perceive that the airplane is large enough to carry people on board. Even though the airplane is far away, we can still determine that the object is at constant size.
  • size-distance relationship- Given an object's perceived distance and the size of its image on our retinas, we instantly and unconsciously infer the object's size. (Myers). Thanks to our linear perspective, it tell you brain that, father away an object is, the bigger it is.
  • lightness constancy- we perceive an object to as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies. (Myers)
  • relative luminance-the amount of light an object reflects relative to its surroundings. (Myers)
  • Muller-Lyer Illusion- this famous illusion exists in many forms but all have the same core concept. The illusion has to do with the observation of Richard Gregory who stated that because our world is so carpentered, we perceive lines with outward pointing arrows on the ends to be shorter than lines with inward pointing arrows on the ends. The illusion therefore asks participants to guess which line is longer, when in reality both are the same length.
    • People that come from a society in which such architecture is not present are not challenged by the Mueller-Lyer illusion. [3] Such was the case with Africans that did not live in the city. They were relatively unaffected by the illusion because their environment lacked the 90 degree angles present in carpentered buildings that generally contain many corners. [4]
  • Perceptual organization applies to other senses, too.
    • We organize a string of letters into words that make an intelligible phrase.
    • This process involves not only organization, but also interpretation --discerning meaning in what we perceive.

Perceptual Interpretation
Philosophers have debated the origin of our perceptual abilities ( Myers)
*Is learning Nature or Nurture?
John Locke argued that through our experiences we also learn to perceive the world. We learn to link an object's distance with its size.(Myers) However, German philosopher Immanuel Kant stated that knowledge comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences(Straub).
  • Perceptual Set: mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. (Myers)
    • Through experience we form concepts, or schemas, that organize and interpret unfamiliar information. Our preexisting schemas influence how we interpret ambiguous sensations with top-down processing. (Myers)
    • A lot of our perception or what we choose to perceive comes from the mind or our thoughts on how or what it is that we are perceiving
    • Our perceptual set can influence what we hear as well as what we see. (Myers)
  • For example when shown the phrase
Mary had a
a little lamb

  • many people perceive what they expect, and miss the repeated word. (Myers)
    • People perceive two adults to be similar to each other if told that they are father and child, or somehow are related (Meyer).
    • Children's drawings reflect their schemas of reality as well as their abilities to represent what they see. (Myers.)
    • Seeing patterns and imagining pictures in the clouds is an example of this type of fop-down processing, which makes use of a perceptual set that the observer may have.
    • In the past parents would worry that music artists were encoding "evil" subliminal messages in their music, which could be heard if the music was played backward. This idea of the artists encoding such messages backwards in their music was known as "backmasking." When the parents listened to the music they suspected to contain such messages backwards, they external image arrow-10x10.png perceived such malicious messages. There truly were no such messages, but the parents had a perceptual set that influenced their decision in the top-down processing. The music when played backward was in reality was only a combination of indiscernible sounds.[5]
    • Peter Thompson at the University of York discovered that our face recognition is especially attuned to the expressive eyes and mouth. (Myers)
    • An example of perceptual set is when people see the face of Jesus on a potato chip.
  • The effects of visual experiences during infancy in cats, monkeys, and humans suggest there is a critical period for normal sensory and perceptual development. Experience guides and sustains the brain's neural organization. (Myers)
    • In one study conducted by Blakemore and Cooper, cats were placed in a vertical line only environment for 5 hours everyday for the first 5 months of their lives. They were not able to see anything else but the vertical lines. After the time period it was observed that the kittens had difficulty dealing with horizontal lines.
  • By having face schemas it empowers our brain to see random face patterns as normal, and makes it difficult to identify the correct facial expressions and features
  • There have been critical periods suggested for both sensory and perceptual development. Certain experiences early in life help guide the brains neural organization (Myers 249).
  • The effect of early experience does last a lifetime. We retain the imprint of early visual experiences far into the future (Myers 249).
  • "Use it soon or lose it" (Myers 249).
-EX: Interverted Eyes and mouth
  • Perceptual Adaptation: Associated with our vision, this allows us to adjust to an artificially displaced or an inverted visual field(we perceive things accordingly but soon adjust because of the learned relationship between our own perception and reality itself). (Meyers).
    • can influence both what we see and hear
    • Example: The Blakemore and Cooper studies involving placing newborn kittens in complete darkness except for when put in a black-and-white vertically striped cylinder for 5 hours each day for five months. Afterwards, the kittens had difficulty perceiving horizontal forms, compared to kittens who had been exposed to only horizontal forms.This study had shown that we retain the imprint of early visual experiences far into the future. (Myers)
    • Given glasses that shift the world slightly to the left or right, or even turn it upside down, people manage to adapt their movements (Myers)
    • Psychologists also did a study in which they turned the visual fields of certain animals and humans upside down. The animals that could not adjust their behavior to the inverted visual field included fish, frogs, and salamanders. Humans, kittens, and monkeys, on the other hand, could adjust. The humans, kittens, and monkeys did not adapt to the inverted visual field by experiencing the visual field correct itself. The world to them still remained upside down, but they were able to learn how to move and control themselves with everything remaining upside down in their vision. [6]
Context Effects:
  • A stimulus can trigger different perceptions in part to our differing schemas and because of the context.
  • Schemas- a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information Meyers G-12)
  • Purpose is to show how experience helps us construct perception
    • If you heard "eel is on the wagon", mostly likely you would perceive to have heard "wheel". But given "eel is on the orange", you most likely would have perceived to have heard "peel".
    • .."told an infant is "David," people (especially children) may perceive "him" as bigger and stronger than if the same infant is called "Diana." (Stern & Karraker, 1989)
    • Speaker say "Cults and sects" or "cults and sex"? (Myers).
    • Another instance is when the speaker says "attacks" or "a tax" on our politicians. (Myers)
      • Context around the word and the surrounding meanings influence what the true meaning is, and what it really is.
  • Based on what is happening in a picture one determines where an object is in the location. By moving objects around one can see the same object somewhere else in the room.
    • ex) By moving rabbits in a box and how they enter the box may appear to be on the floor or on the wall. (Myers 252)
Perception and the Human Factor
  • Human factors psychology attempts to explore how machines interact with humans "and how machines and physical environments can be adapted to human behavior." (Myers)
  • The human factor in misperception example- lacking distance cues when approaching a runway from over a dark surface, pilots simulating a night landing tended to fly too low. (from Kraft, 1978)
    • Helps design appliances, machines, and work settings that fit in with our natural perceptions. For example, with traditionally positioned stove controls, a person must read the labels to figure out which knob works which burner. Natural mapping dictates that by positioning the controls in a more natural way/map, which the brain understands at a glance, we can eliminate a need to look over at instructions (Myers 255).
    • Technology developers may suffer the "curse of knowledge," which is basically when they assume others share their expertise on something. They underestimate how confusing their explanations may actually be (Myers). Human factors psychologists help understand the limitations of the species and design machines accordingly, increasing safety and productivity (Straub).
    • Assistive listening- technology systems in various homes, churches, and auditoriums that is designed for people with hearing loss and goes directly to their external image arrow-10x10.png. When people are offered inconspicuous and convenient sound, many will use assistive listening (Myers).
    • " Understanding human factors can do more than enable us to design for reduced frustration; it can help avoid disasters" (Myers)
    • an example of reducing frustration- pilots use practice flight simulations before an actual flight to be sure they are as prepared as possible

  • social perception- a part of perception that allows us to understand people on an individual scale and in a group in their social environment
  • Cultures who do not have or use a linear perspective do not see depth in pictures using that cue (McEntarffer)
Perception and Taste
  • Our taste buds are involved in tasting the five known different tastes, Sour(sides of the tongue), Sweet(front of the tongue), Bitter (back of tongue), Salty(sides and front), and Umami(palate). Most other taster are a mixed of all these.
    • In total we have about 10,000 taste buds which are located primarily in or around the papillae on the tongue.
  • our perception on taste can be altered from our other senses as well as our general schema and ignorance.
  • Taste is also based on how people are raised. For instance, if a child is never allowed to taste a soft drink, then when he or she is older and tries it for the first time, he or she will not like the taste. However, those that are brought up drinking it from a young age acquire a liking for the drink. Our perception of taste is thus a combination of nature and nurture.
  • Taste receptors reproduce themselves every week or two
  • As you get older the number of taste buds decreases, as does taste sensitivity.
Example: say a cherry flavor drink is colored green, our basic understanding is that a green drink does not taste like cherry and will then adapt to meet our expectations of a green colored drink

Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
  • Is the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. This includes telepathy, clairvoyance and precognition.
  • A reproducible ESP phenomenon has never been discovered nor has any individual convincingly, to the psychology and scientific community, demonstrated psychic ability.
Claims of ESP
  • claims of paranormal phenomena including astrological predictions, psychic healing, communication with the dead, and out-of- body experiences. (Myers)
  • The scientific and psychological community has asked for a reproducible phenomenon and a theory to support it,to external image arrow-10x10.png credibility to those who claim ESP.
  • The CIA tried out a psychic spy program that it had to discontinue because it had no results and showed only errors or ambiguity in so called "psychic visions".
  • In a test of telepathy, when the subjects' senses were narrowed through lack of vision and hearing, they beat chance on guessing what image another subject was thinking about. When attempts to replicate the experiment were made, the theory results weren't consistent.
  • Myers states that, people have an innate desire to experience the magical and this leasds to them having a more open mind than usual to ESP. It causes selective recall and misperceptions that lead to more and more people believing in the existence of ESP.
  • As James Randi (The Amazing Randi) proves time and time again, there is no such things as ESP.
    • He offers $1,000,000 to anyone who can successfully do a paranormal trick that he himself cannot perform. (http://www.randi.org/site/index.php/1m-challenge.html)
    • This external image arrow-10x10.png has existed for three decades and dozens of people have been tested, but none have ever passed the test and received the money (Myers).
  • Extrasensory perception (ESP)– controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input
  • Telepathy, or mind-to-mind communication-one person sending thoughts to another or perceiving another's thoughts (Myers).
  • Clairvoyance, or perceiving remote events, such as sensing that a friend's house is on fire (Myers).
  • Parapsychologist- "those who study paranormal occurrences" (Myers 258).
  • The Ganzfeld procedure
    • Parapsychologists use sensory deprivation to reduce distractions and put more focus on one thing specifically.
    • However, statistics prove that the Ganzfeld procedure does not (currently) external image arrow-10x10.png a replicable method for producing ESP in the labratory.
  • Precognition, or perceiving future events, such as a political leader's death or a sporting event's outcome.(Myers)
    • Ex: People who claim to be fortune tellers tell you that they have the power of precognition, in which they state that they could see into your future.
  • Parapsychology – the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis. Studies such as: telepathy, precognition, apparitional experiences, clairvoyance, etc (Myers).
  • Psychokinesis: "mind over matter" is the ability to move objects with the power of the mind, like levitating a table or influencing the role of a die (Myers). Closely linked with telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
  • Those who can demonstrate psychic abilities on stage for an audience can never replicate those abilities in a lab, suggesting that these acts are just that- an act (Myers).
    • Most of those who claims to have "telepathy" are trained to pick up on subtle facial expressions after asking the audiences relevant questions and using psychological analysis to interpret these cues, getting eventually to the right answer.

  • Myers puts parapsychologist as being those who study paranormal occurrences.
  • The study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis.
  • Beyond the realm of psychology and known natural laws (Myers)
  • Extrasensory perception (ESP)- the claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition have been connected to ESP. (Myers)
  • Telepathy:Mind-to-Mind Communication-one person sending thoughts to another or perceiving another's thoughts (Myers).
  • Clairvoyance: perceiving remoter events, such as sensing that a friends's house is on fire. Clair meaning "Clear" and Voyance meaning "Vision" (Myers).
    • There has never been a study or experiment which proved that people can actually possess ESP. (Myers)

Human factors psychology
Help to design appliances, machine, and work settings that fit our natural perceptions. (Myers)
  • Psychologists Donal Norman suggests that simple design changes can reduce some of our frustrations (Myers)
  • Understanding human factors can do more than enable us to design for reduced frustration; it can help avoid disaster (Myers).
    • Ex: Lacking distance cues when approaching a runway over a dark surface, pilots can simulate a night landing via technology (Kraft, 1978).
    • Assistive listening technology: convenient, inconspicuous, personalized sound., Many more people elect to use it
    • Loop systems: broadcast right into the hearing aid
  • Myers gives us a point to remember, "designers and engineers should consider thru human factor by designing things to fit people, by being mindful of the curse of knowledge, and by user-testing their external image arrow-10x10.png before production and distribution.
  • Technology developers often suffer the "curse of knowledge," which leads them to assume that other share their expertise. (Meyers)
  • Perceptions vary, and may not be what a designer assumes. Human factors psychologists therefore study how people perceive and use machines, and how machines and physical environments can be better suited to that use. (Myers 287)

  1. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
  2. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
  3. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
  4. ^ Myers, David G. Myers' Psychology for AP. Seventh ed. New York, NY: Worth, 2004. Print.
  5. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
  6. ^ Myers, David G. Myers' Psychology for AP. Seventh ed. New York, NY: Worth, 2004. Print.