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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.

Social Psychology
Social Thinking
  • Attitudes-beliefs and feelings that predispose our reactions to objects, people, and events (Myers).
    • an individual's attitude towards such things are either positive or negative (McEntarffer 274)
People's behavior can be generally explained by attributing it either to internal dispositions or external situations. When we explain our own behavior, we more often point to the situation and not to ourselves. (Myers)
Our attitudes will guide our __actions__ if:
  • Central route to persuasion are the facts that most people are swayed by.
  • Peripheral route to persuasion are other details that influence someone.
  • Outside influences on what we say and do are minimal: Powerful situations can manipulate what we say.(Myers)
  • The attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior: People readily demonstrate general attitudes that contradict their behavior. Ex-They proclaim love while verbally abusing their __partner__.(Myers)
      • Richard LaPiere, in 1934, did an observational [[#|study]], in __order__ to see if attitudes guided behavior. He asked an Asian husband and wife to [[#|travel]] to various hotels and __restaurants__ located on the West Coast, in order to see whether they would be provided with service or if they would be harshly dealt with. During this time there existed significant prejudice against Asians. The [[#|two]] only experienced bad treatment and a refusal of __service__ at one location. Afterwards, LaPiere asked the institutions of their ability to accommodate Asians. About 92 percent of those institutions that responded back claimed they would not offer any service to Asians. LaPiere’s [[#|study]] and many others show that attitudes do not necessarily coincide with behavior.[1]
- Social Psychologist- "Explore connections by scientifically studying how we think about, influence, and relate to one another (Myers 695).
- Social Psychology
- the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another (Meyers 696)
- Attribution Theory – the theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition. (Meyers 696)
Our attributions to individuals dispositions or to their situations have real consequences (Myers)
      • Ex: A teacher may wonder whether a child's hostility reflects an aggressive personality, or whether the child is reacting to stress or abuse (Myers).
    • dispositional attribution- assumes the cause of a behavior or outcome is internal (Talamo)
      • Ex: If at a party someone is angry, by using dispositional attribution, one might think that that someone is just an angry person by nature.
    • situational attribution- assigns the cause to the environment or external conditions (Talamo)
      • Ex: Seeing someone laughing as you enter a room, you may say that the situation in the room, or a funny moment in the room, is what caused them to laugh.
      • Ex: attributing failing a test to the bad instructional methods of the teacher
    • self-fulfilling prophecy: one conforms to a belief by fulfilling it, such as when an African-American fails because society looksdown on them (Talamo 194)
      • aka the Rosenthal Effect, especially when it comes to [[#|education]]
  • Fritz Heider’s Attribution Theory: states that people “attribute” (link) others’ behaviors with their (internal) disposition or (external) situations (Myers).
    • ex. A person that always smiles at a party might give the impression to others that he is a happy guy (dispositional attribution) or the party is making him happy (situational attribution). (Myers)

-Fundamental Attribution Error – the tendency for observers when analyzing another behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. The thing to remember is that our attributions have real consequences, whether they be to individuals' dispositions or to their situations (Myers).
  • Ex: Julie in [[#|class]] maybe really quiet and shy but once she is at a friendly gathering, then her personality shines through and exposes her true self, therefore people who had judge her as being shy and quiet have experienced fundamental attribution error
  • ex: An experiment by David Napolitan and George Goethals did an experiment where Williams College students talked to a young woman who either acted critical or friendly. Before they had told the some students the woman would act randomly they told others that she would act either critical or friendly. The students disregarded the info and judged her as a person instead of the surroundings (Meyers 696)
- Attitude – belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events.
  • In turn, your actions can also dictate your attitudes; so attitudes and actions exist in an enduring cycle.
    • According to Kraus, 1991; Wallace & others, 1996; our attitudes will guide our actions if outside influences on what we say and do are minimal (Myers).
  • The attitude is specifically relevant to the behavior (Myers).
  • We are keenly aware of our attitudes (Myers).
  • attitudes predict behavior only under certain conditions.
- Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon – tendency for people to have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Example: a Cutco salesman may persuade the customer to buy a pair of scissors, then try to persuade them to buy a set of knives as well (Myers).
  • Cooperative actions, such as those performed by people on sports team, feed mutual liking. Such attitudes, in turn, promote positive behavior. (Myers)
  • For example, if you require $60 to purchase a new video game and will ask your parents for the money, this idea proposes that you first ask for a smaller amount of say, $15. If your parents have accepted this smaller request they will be more likely to accept another, possibly, larger request. You may then proceed and ask your parents for the remaining $45.
  • For example: A car salesman will ask a potential customer to hand him a pen or a small object and if the potential customer does, he or she is more likely to listen to the other requests about buying features for their new car.
  • the chinnese harnessend the phenomenon by gradually escalating their demands on the prisoners, beginning with harmless request (schein, 1956)
- Role – set of expectations about a social position.
  • when adopting to a new role (for example college student, marry, or a new job) people often feel as if they are fakes in the beginning since they are acting a role, but after a few week when they habituate into the role, the behavior is no longer forced.
  • Sometimes as we adopt new roles, we can experience a sort of Role Conflict, or a conflict arising between the different roles or statuses we have.
  • At first, your behaviors may feel phony, because you are acting out the role. Before long, however, your behavior no longer feels forced. (Myers).
    • Ex: As a Student one must be at school completing work and fulfilling their scholarly duties, like completing homework, or studying, while as a teammate one must be at practice everyday and be occasionally absent from school to attend competitions, and games. We can see that these two roles can have conflicts
    • Ex) Many expectations follow a women when she becomes a mother. A mother is expected to cook, clean, look after the kids, and prepare a warm meal for her husband when he comes back from work. The roles that a mother has to play, brings great weights onto her shoulders and she may experience conflicts to adjust to her new role.

foot in the door Phenomenon

  • a tendency for prople who agree to a small action to comply later with a larger one. (Meyers) [2]
  • Example: You realize the prom dress you want is $1,000 and there is no way you can afford that but you found the same design at a different store for $400, although $400 is still a lot it is not as much as the original price. So you plan to take one of your parents, preferably the most naive about the price of prom dresses, First you take them to the really expensive one where they are not at all pleased by the price and then to the cheaper store, due to comparison they will be more opened to buying you the $400 dress since they saw the $1000 dress first.
- Cognitive Dissonance Theory – we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent. This change in attitude happens without conscious
Book definition of Cognitive Dissonance Theory
-the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognition) are inconsistent.For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes (Myers 701).
*Proposed by Leon Festinger, we bring our attitudes into line with our actions (Myers)
- Changing behavior can change how we think and how we feel (Myers).
-Frequently accomplished by changing our attitude rather than our behavior. (Myers)
- Self Serving Bias- sees the cause of actions as internal when the outcomes are positive or external when the results are negative (Talamo)
- Interpersonal Attraction- tendency to positively evaluate a person and then to gravitate to that person (Talamo)
  • Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith designed an experiment involving cognitive dissonance.
  • The subjects were asked to complete a dull and mundane task and then were told to lie to the subject next in line (who was in reality a confederate) that it was fun. One group of the subjects was given $1, while the other group of subjects was given $20 to do the same task.
  • It was noted that subjects who were paid $1 developed more of a constructive and optimistic attitude toward the task, as compared to those who were paid $20. In order to eliminate the dissonance these subjects actually altered their attitude toward the task.
  • The subjects that were paid $1 did not have the same extrinsic motivation as those being paid $20.[3]
Social Influence
Conformity and Obedience
-As suggestibility studies demonstrate, when we are unsure about our judgments, we are likely to adjust them toward the group standard. Solomon Asch found that under certain conditions people will conform to a group's judgement even when it is clearly incorrect. (Myers)
- Conformity – Suggestibility is a type of conformity. Conformity is adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. Happens most frequently when we are unsure of our own judgments. Also happens more frequently when an individual does not want to stick out.
  • Social psychology shows the power of social influence on our attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions. (Myers)
  • The chameleon effect is when someone unconsciously mimics other people's expressions, posture,and voice tones to help us feel what they are feeling.
  • Mood linkage would be when people share "up and down moods". This explains why we feel happier around happy people than depressed people.
- Normative Social Influence – influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
--Marco Lokar knows. During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, Lokar, an Italian, was the only Seton Hall University basketball player who chose not to display an American flag on his uniform. As the team traveled, the fans' abusive responses to his nonconforming behavior became unbearable, so he left the team and returned to Italy.
- Informational Social Influence – influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others opinions about reality (Myers).
---Used when making tough, important judgments.
---Example: Baron modernized the Asch experiment by showing participants a slide of a stimulus person followed by four-person line up, and made it so their judgement was easy, difficult, unimportant, and important. When the test was unimportant, people conformed about a third of the time to the wrong judgments of two confederates. When the judgement was easy and important, people rarely conformed. When the task was difficult and important, they conformed about half the time (Myers).
Obedience: is highest when
    • The person was at hand and was an authority figure
    • the authority figure was part of a prestigious institution
    • the victim was depersonalized or at a distance
    • no other subject was disobeying the experiment
    • ex. In Stanley Milgram's famous experiments, people torn between obeying orders and responding to another's pleas for the shocks to stop usually chose to follow orders, even if it hurt someone else.

-Social impairment- When a rather simple task like tying your shoe laces becomes rather difficult when bigwatched and being asked to explain a step by step process.

- Social Facilitation – improved performance of well-learned tasks in the presence of others. The people that are around, the more we feel to go along with the group.
  • ex: a person at a green light with another car beside them responds 15 seconds faster than someone at a green light without a car beside them (Myers)
  • On tougher tasks, people perform less well when observers or others working on the same tasks are present. we become aroused when others observe us, thus strengthening the most likely response-correct one on an easy task, and incorrect on a more difficult task (Myers).
  • Thus, when we are being observed, we perform well-learned tasks more quickly and accurately and unmastered tasks less quickly and accurately.(Myers).
  • The energizing effect of an enthusiastic audience probably contributes to the home advantage enjoyed by various sports teams. (Myers).
  • Ex. poor shooters who made 36 percent of shots while alone made only 25 percent when watched (Myers).
  • Social facilitation also helps explain a funny effect of crowding: Comedy records that are mildly amusing to people in a uncrowded room seem funnier in a densely packed room (Aiello & others, 1983; Freedman & Perlick, 1979). As comedians and actors know, a "good house" is a full one. (Myers 710)

Social Loafing – tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
  • People acting as part of a group feel less accountable and therefore worry less about what others thing (Myers 710).
Ex. Team of tug a war, individuals exerted only 82 percent of effort as when they knew they were pulling alone(Myers).
ex: in 78 experiments conducted in the U.S. India, Thailand, Japan, China, and Taiwan, social loafing occurred on various tasks, though it was especially common among men in individualistic cultures. (Myers)
- Deindividuation – loss of self-awareness and self restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
  • often occurs when group participation makes people feel aroused and anonymous (Myers)
  • For example, Harry and his friends beat up a kid after p.e. If Harry was alone he would not have beat up the kid. When called a bully and asked why he did it he would deny being a bully and say it wasn't a big deal and it wasn't just him, the whole group was doing it.
  • Initially both the obedient recruit and the abusive sergeant may have consciously adopted the behavior expected of them. In time, they may become the characters they are playing. (Myers)

Social Relations
- Group Polarization – enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group.
* could have either good or bad consequences when having a discussion
    • Good results when It "amplifies a sought-out spiritual awareness or strengthens the resolve of those in a self help group" (Myers 711).
    • Bad Results "discussion between like minded people may backfire" (Myers 711)
    • The 9/11 terrorists were not born terrorists; their actions were the fruit of a long process that engaged the polarizing effect of interaction among the like minded (Myers 711).
    • ex) "When high-prejudice students discussed the same issues, they became more prejudiced" (Myers 711)
- Groupthink – mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives.
  • groupthink was an idea coined by Irving Janis (Talamo 194)
  • "They discovered that ... groupthink was fed by overconfidence, conformity, self justification, and group polarization." (Meyers)
Social control is the power of the situation and personal control is the power of the individual.
Minority influence is the power of one or two individuals to sway minorities (Moscovici 2985) though it may not be popular, it may become influential especially when the minority expresses its view consistently as well as the minority's self confidence stimulates the others.

- Mindguard- a person in a group that may criticize members of a group dissenting from the group opinion (Talamo 194)
- Prejudice – an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members
  • Prejudice springs from the divisions of society and the passions of the heart. The mind also naturally categorizes things (like races to stereotypes) as a way of simplifying the world.
  • Social roots of prejudice involve social inequalities, scapegoating, and being bias( us and them: ingroup and outgroup)
  • Passions produce prejudice. (Myers)
  • Prejudice often arises of those who enjoy social and economic superiority attempt to justify the status quo. (Myers)
  • Prejudice can also tie into the just world phenomenon causing people to believe oppressed minorities have reason to be oppressed enforces prejudice
  • Even the temporary assignment of people to groups can cause an ingroup bias.Once established,the inertia of social influence often helps maintain prejudice.(Myers)
  • New research shows that prejudice may be biologically instinctive, and possibly have been a form of survival for human ancestors.
  • Ex. After 9-11 most Americans began to hate all Muslims and Middle-Easterners
- Stereotype – a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people. Stereotypes may be either negative or positive and can be applied to virtually any group of people (for example, racial, ethnic, geographic) (Barrons).
- An example of a stereotype is, All African Americans are skilled at sports, however much truth there is to this, it is not 100%. As well as all Asains are smart, and every white guy is racist

  • Newer research reveals how our ways of processing information (for example by overestimating similarities when we categorize people or by noticing and remembering vivid cases) work to create stereotypes (Myers)
- Common examples of stereotypes:
  • If you are Asian you cannot drive.
  • If you are Mexican, you are here illegally.
  • If you are Black, you like chicken and watermelon.
  • If you are a girl, you make sandwiches.
  • All blondes are airheads
  • All people on the swim team are white
  • Asians are good at math
  • All football players are idiots
- Ingroup –people with whom one shares a common identity (“us”).
-We tend to see the members of the ingroup as being different.
o Ingroup Bias – tendency to favor one’s own group and create an us-them distinction. This creates favoritism for one's one group when handing out rewards. (Tajfel, 1982; Wilder, 1981)
  • In high schools students often form cliques and disparage those outside their group. (Myers)
- Outgroup – those who are perceived as different or apart from one’s group (“them”).
-We tend to view the out group as all the same.
Ex. Anyone that isn't in your close group of friends, family or associates
- Scapegoat Theory
Scapegoat theory is a term that relates to prejudice. According to this theory, people may be prejudice toward a group in order to vent their anger. In essence, they use the group they dislike as their target.

  • EX: After WWI Germany looked for a new leader whom would take them out of financial misery, In their uprising Hitler presented a new theory of blaming Jews for the German financial crisis.
  • In addition to providing a convenient emotional outlet for anger, despised outgroups can also boost ingroup members' self esteem (Myers).
- Just-World Phenomenon – tendency of people to believe the world is just
  • this is illustrated in experiments where merely observing someone receive painful shocks will lead many people to think less of the victim - those who succeed must be good and those who suffer must be bad.
o People get what they deserve and deserve what they get (Ex: "If I get rewarded, I must be good.")
- Frustration-Aggression Principle – principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression.
-Animal and human brains have neural systems that, when stimulated, inhibit or produce aggressive behavior (Moyer).
-When it comes to Biochemical influences, hormones, alcohol, and other substances in the blood influence the neural systems that control aggression (Myers).

Self serving bias
  • When one takes credit for the successes while at the same time blaming their failures on external situations beyond their control (Krieger).
  • Example; when a student passes a difficult test they will congratulate themselves for staying focused and studying the night before, but if they fail the test they will blame their bad test score on the teacher's teaching abilities or how busy they were the day before.
o Aggression – any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
  • hostile aggression is emotional and impulsive, and is typically induced by pain or stress
  • Aggressive behavior is a product of nature and nurture.
  • ex. Murders and assaults are considered acts of aggression.
    • Aggressiveness is genetically influenced
    • Aversive events heighten peoples hostility (Myers)
    • hormones, alcohol, and other substances in the blood influence the neural systems that control aggression (Myers)
    • Enacting violence in video games also heightens aggressive behavior. (Myers)
  • TV Violence can been shown to increase the aggressive behaviors of people who watch it.
  • Ex. After watching Power Rangers, children begin to fight with one another (Myers)
  • Sexual Aggression: Can also be effected by the media.
  • Social Script:Cultural and social model that we use to decide the appropriate way to act in a unfamiliar situation (Myers)
  • Ex. After watching x-rated "rape" pornography researchers assessed men's attitudes towards women and found that they viewed women as degraded and in an individualistic manner suggesting that would be more like to intentionally harm women. (Myers)
  • for a gun to fire, the trigger must be pulled; with some people, as with hair-trigger guns, it doesnt take much to trip an explosion (Myers)
  • Sexually explicit films do not increase aggression as the "rape" movies did because it was not the sexual acts which caused the men to become more aggressive, it was the violent nature of the pornography which caused an increase in aggression (Myers)
- Conflict – perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
  • EX.- Deindividuation + competition+ alcohol= aggression.(Myers)
-A variety of psychological factors fuel aggression's fire. Such stimuli are especially likely to trigger aggression from role models, and those who have been influenced by media violence. (Myers)

- Social Trap – a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. The parties involved may become caught up in mutually harmful behaviors as they pursue their own ends. (Myers 727)
      • we enhance our collective well-being by pursuing our personal interests. (Myers)
      • ex. Individual whalers reasoned that it wouldn't threaten the species if they took a few whales and if they didn't take the whales, other whalers would anyways. When many whalers reason that way, whales become endangered. (Myers)
      • People are usually distrustful and pursue their individual interests as a defense against exploitation. (Myers 739)
- Conflicts between individuals and cultures often arise from malignant social processes. These include social traps, in which each party, by protecting and pursing its self-interest, creates an outcome that no one wants. The spiral of conflict also feeds and is fed by distorted mirror-image perceptions, in which each party views itself as moral and the other as untrustworthy and evil-intentioned. (Myers)
-enemy mirror image perception- as we see "them"-as untrustworthy and evil intentioned- so "they" see us. (Myers)

- Mere Exposure effect- the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them. (Myers)
    • For example, people tend to buy products that they have been exposed to the most by advertisements, rather than products that they have not been exposed to before
  • Within certain limits, familiarity breeds fondness. (Myers)
    • Ex) When a rare white penguin was born in Sydney, Australia he was criticized by his peers and the zookeepers thought they would have to dye him black so his peers would accept him. After three weeks he was accepted by them and the zookeepers didn't need to dye him. (Myers 729)
  • A person is more likely to like the mirror-image version of themselves over how they really look because they are more familiar with seeing that version of themselves. (Myers)
  • Moreland and Beach demonstrated mere exposure effect by having four attractive women attend a 200-student class for 0-15 class sessions. At the end of the course, students were asked to rate the attractiveness of these four women and the one who ranked the highest was the one who'd been in the class most often (Myers 729).

The Psychology of Attraction
There are [[#|three]] factors that move our affections toward a certain person.

  1. Proximity- geographical nearness. Since we are able to see them more often this stimulates our liking because we are exposed to them more and more.
  2. Proximity is perhaps the most powerful predictor of friendship, it also provides opportunity for aggression, but much more often it breeds liking. (Myers)
  3. Physical attractiveness- influences social opportunities and the way one is perceived. (Myers)
  4. Similarity of attitudes and interests- the fact that they have more and more in common helps bond quickly and we are able to establish common communication.
  5. We perceive attractive people to be healthier, happier, more sensitive, more successful, and more socially skilled, thought not more honest or compassionate. (Eagly & others, 1991; Feingold, 1992; Hatfield & Sprecher, 1986)
  6. Conceptions of attractiveness vary by culture. What may be found attractive in one culture may be considered ugly in another. Moreover, the current concept of attractiveness in Kenya morocco, and the united states may well change in the future. (Myers 731)
  7. Americans now spend more on beauty supplies than on educating and social services combined; In affluent beauty conscious cultures increasing numbers of people, turned to cosmetic surgery to improve their looks.(Myers)
  8. Most people tend to not perceive themselves as unattractive. Due to the mere exposure effect, people grow accustomed to their own faces (Myers).
Romantic Love
  • Passionate love- an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another,usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.[Myers]
    • Two factor theory can help explain the intense powerful absorption in another. (Myers)
    • Arousal can help enhance emotions in passionate love. (Myers)
    • College men who are aroused are more likely to find a woman attractive. (Myers)
    • Doesn't last very long. It's a temporary type of love that deals with the passion in a relationship.
    • Passionate love often produces children, whose survival is aided by the parents' waning obsession with one another. (Myers 733)
  • Compassionate love- the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.[Myers]. This love focuses on commitment.
    • where people rate love less important for marriage, indeed have lower divorce rates (Levine & others, 1995)
    • This love tends to last a lot longer than passionate love.
    • when equity exists, their chances for sustained and satisfying compassionate love are good.(Myers)
      • Equity is a condition in which people receive from a relationship on proportion to what they give to it. (Myers 735)
      • Mutually sharing self and possessions, giving and getting emotional support, promoting and caring about one another's welfare are at the core of every type of loving relationship (Myers)
  • Self-disclosure- revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others. (Myers)
  • giving self disclosing intimacy plus mutually supportive equality, the odds favor enduring compassionate love. (Myers)
Altruism- unselfish regard for the welfare of others. (Myers) Altruism can help reduce the tendency toward the by-stander effect and has been explained in terms of an empathetic response to the plight of others (The Princeton Review).
  • the best odds of our helping someone occur when
    • we have just observed someone else being helpful
    • we are not in a hurry.
    • the victim appears to need and deserve help.
    • the victim is in some way similar to us.
    • we are in a small town or rural area.(Myers)
    • we are feeling guilty
    • we are focused on others and not preoccupied
    • we are in a good mood
  • Basically happy people are more likely to be helpful to others, and is one of the most consistent findings in psychology
The Psychology of Helping
  • One widely held view is that self-interest underlies all human interactions for our constant goal to maximize rewards and minimize the cost (Myers)
  • bystander effect- the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present. Many factors including mood influence ones willingness to help someone in distress. (myers)
  • The bystander effect relates to the diffusion of responsibility when a person is getting help, it is less likely that the person would feel they should help.
  • An example of the bystander effect would be, you see a group of people beating a young man, but you just keep minding your own business because you also see other people just walking by.
  • social exchange theory- the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs (Myers)
  • subordinate goals- shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation (myers)
  • social responsibility norm- we should help those who need our help, even if the cost outweighs the benefit (Myers).
  • Social expectations influence helping ex. leaving tips to people we will never see again and giving directions to a stranger
    • Thus, we expect a reciprocity norm- expectations that we should return help to those who helped us
  • Cooperative Orientation: A type of problem solving approach in groups in which an individual aims to solve the problem by maximizing the good for everyone involved (Princeton 174).
  • Competitive Orientation: A type of problem solving approach in groups in which an individual is willing to sacrifice the good of others for themselves. (Princeton 174).
  • Individualistic Orientation: Problem solving approach in which an individual attempts to maximize his or her benefits, but not necessarily at the expense of others. (Princeton 174).

Prejudice: Arises as those who enjoy social and economic superiority attempt to justify the status quo
Aggression: A genetically influenced behavior that is also fueled by psychological factors
Conflict: Arises often from malignant social processes including social traps in which each party tried to protects and pursues their own self interest (Myers)

-Research indicates that cooperation, communication, and conciliation can in some cases transform the antagonism fed by prejudice, aggression, and various conflicts into attitudes that promote peace.(myers)
  • GRIT - graduated and reciprocal initiatives in tension-reduction - is a strategy designed to decrease international tension. In applying GRIT, one side first announces its recognition of mutual interests and its intent to reduce tensions. It then initiates one or more small, conciliatory acts. Without weakening one's retaliatory capability, this modest beginning opens the door for reciprocation by the other party. (Myers 739)
    • In lab experiments, GRIT has been the most effective strategy for increasing trust and cooperation. (Myers)
  • subordinate goals- goals that are shared among a group of people that help them forget about their differences. (Myers)
    • Ex) Cooperative efforts help override differences to achieve the same goal. In a sports team the team will work together to win, breaking down social barriers.
  • Cooperative efforts to achieve shared goals are an effective way to break down social barriers ( Myers738).
  • superordinate goals- According to Myers, shared goals that override differences among people and requires their cooperation.
  • When real-life conflicts become intense, a third-party mediator (e.g., marriage counselor, labor mediator, diplomat, community volunteer) may facilitate much-needed communication (Rubin & Others, 1994)
  • Mediators help each party to voice its viewpoint and to understand the other's (Myers 739)
  • By leading each side to think about the other's underlying needs and goals, the mediator aims to replace a competitive win-lose orientation with a cooperative win-win orientation that aims at a mutually beneficial resolution (Myers 739)
  • E.g., Two friends, after arguing over an orange, agreed to split it. One squeezed his half for juice. The other used the peel from her half to make a cake.
  • If only the two had understood each other's motives, they could have hit on the win-win solution of one having all the juice, the other all the peel (Myers 739)
  • When suspicion and tension reach their apex, communication and cooperation may no longer be a possibility
  • In the weeks before the Persian Gulf War, President George Bush threatened to "kick Saddam's ass" (Myers 739)
  • Saddam Hussein communicated in kind by threatening to make Americans "swim in their own blood" (Myers 739)
  • An alternative to war or surrender - as advocated by social psychologist Charles Osgood (1962, 1980) - is a strategy of "Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction," or GRIT
  • In applying GRIT, one side first announces its recognition of mutual interests and its intent to reduce tensions
  • Then, it initiates one or more small, conciliatory acts
  • Without weakening one's retaliatory capability, this modest beginning opens the door for reciprocation by the other party (Myers 739)

  1. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
  2. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.
  3. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.