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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.

Stress and Health

  • If stress is to persist for elongated periods of time, it may bring about skin rashes, asthma attacks, or high blood pressure
  • E.g., in an experiment conducted by British Airways on April 23, 1999, three hours after takeoff, an erroneously played message told passengers that the plane would soon crash into the sea
  • Although the flight crew recognized the error and attempted to calm the petrified passengers, many of them required medical assistance (Associated Press, 1999)
  • If prolonged, stress can increase the risks of getting heart disease, cancer, stroke, and chronic lung disease
  • For psychologists, health is more than "merely the slowest possible rate at which one can die" (Prairie Home Companion, 1999)

  • Psychological states cause physical reactions. (Meyers)
    • EX: Nervous about an encounter, we feel stomach butterflies (Meyers)
    • ex: Anxious over speaking in public, we frequent the bathroom (Meyers)
    • ex: Smoldering over a conflict with a family member, we get a splitting headache (Meyers
    • Ex : Thinking of the things a student needs to graduate, the students gets a headache

Stress and Stressors
Stress is the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging (Meyers 532)
  • Four to ten people report experiencing stress "frequently" (Saud 2001). (Myers 532)
-Walter Cannon viewed stress, the process by we appraise and respond to events that challenge or threaten us, as a "flight-or-fight" system. (Myers)
-Hans Selye saw it as a three stage (alarm resistance exhaustion) general adaptation syndrome (GAS). (Myers)
-General adaptation syndrome is Selye's concept of the body's adaptive response to stress in the three stages -- alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. During the exhaustion stage, the body is most vulnerable to disease.
-Stressors are the events that tend to provoke stress responses are those that we perceive as both negative and uncontrollable.
-When perceived as challenges, stressors can have positive effects, arousing and motivating us to conquer problems. (Myers)
EX. Positive effect: stressing over an exam but motivation causes one to perform well
EX. Negative effect: stress stemming from internal and external factors that are unresolved increasing serious health risks
-Having conquered cancer or rebounded from a lost job, some people emerge with stronger self-esteem and a deepened spirituality and sense of purpose. Some stress early in life is conductive to later emotional resilience and physical growth (Landauer & Whiting, 1979).
-"Unhealthy behaviors- can increase our risk for one of today's four leading causes of serious illness and death: external image arrow-10x10.png, cancer, stroke, and chronic external image arrow-10x10.png" (Myers 531).
  • Heart Disease is most commonly found among people that experience a great amount of stress
-Your living conditions also affect the levels of stress you carry. Poverty and Inequality can cause higher levels of stress. This can also put people at risk of premature death.
Behavioral Medicine
  • Nature v Nurture
  • uses biopsychological model of illness instead of medical illness
  • interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and diseases (Myers)
  • Created to understand how the modification of cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, unprotected sex, ignoring doctors orders, insufficient exercise and poor nutrition can affect life expectancy and quality (Myers).
  • If prolonged, stress together with unhealthy behaviors can increase our risk for one of today's four leading causes of illness, external image arrow-10x10.png, cancer, stroke, and chronological lung cancer (Myers).
  • Behavioral Medicine is different from health psychology which includes para psychological methods. Behavioral medicine uses external image arrow-10x10.png practical and physical approaches.
  • Behavioral medicine works by reducing the size amount of neuro-frequencies to a more stable range to promote more desirable behaviors.
Daily Hassles
  • A daily hassle is a specific event that interferes with or alters a person's daily routine/regime and can be characterized as, "rush-hour traffic, long lines, and/or job stress..." (Myers)
Life Changes
  • A life change could be characterized as, "death of a loved one, divorce, loss of job or promotion" (Myers). The term literally speaks for itself, meaning that this new event changes or alters a person's normal life.
  • Catastrophes are unpredictable, large scale events such as war and natural disasters that nearly everyone appraises as threatening. (Meyers 535)
  • EX. Earthquakes, Combat and Floods
  • Although people often provide one another with aid as well as comfort after such events, the health consequences can be significant. (Meyers 535)
  • When a significant catastrophy happens stress levels tend to go up. In 9/11 two-thirds of the population had trouble concentrating and sleeping.(Wahlberg,2001).
  • other life changes like leaving home or even death, loss of a job etc result in high stress levels.
  • in disasters wake, rates of psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety rose an average 17 percent. (Myers 535)
Perceived Control
  • Stress is negative and uncontrollable. In humans, a bacterial infection often combines with uncontrollable stress to produce the most severe ulcers(Overbug and Murison 1997).
  • Pereiving a loss of control we become vulnerable to ill health.
Health Psychology
  • sub field of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine. (Myers)
  • Behavioral medicine integrates health and behavior knowledge to treat disease
  • For psychologists, health is more than "merely the slowest possible rate at which one can die" (Prairie Home Companion, 1999). (Myers 531)
  • Health psychologists ask: How do our emotions and personality influence our risk of disease? What attitudes and behaviors help prevent illness and promotes health and well-being? How do out perceptions of a situation determine the stress we feel? How can we reduce or control stress ? (Myers 531)

Stress and Illness
  • Stress - the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging
  • ex: if a person sees something as threatending, they say no because. If a person sees it as challenging, they say yes if (McHenry).
  • Four in 10 people report experiencing stress "frequently" (Saad, 2001). Stress is a slippery concept. It sometimes describes threats or challenges, other times our responses. (Meyers 532)
  • ex. Responding to a math test with anxiety and nervousness
  • Process: Event<Appraisal<Response!
  • Although stress can lead to illness, some stress is good
  • transient stressors- temporary challenges: "What's the right answer on the test?"
    • chronic stressors- long term challenges and can have negative impact on health: "Are my drinking habits going to affect my unborn child?"
  • Example: you're walking along a path and you see a rattlesnake by your feet. Your body responds by preparing for fight-or-flight, with tensed [[#|muscles]], flowing adrenaline, and a pounding heart, then you quickly flee for safety. This saves your life (Myers).
  • Stressors can have a positive affects arousing and motivating us to conquer our problems (Myers 533)
-An example is championship athletes, successful entertainers, and great teachers and leaders all thrive and excel when aroused by a challenge (Myers 533)
  • Stressors can threaten our lives. Those who had post-traumatic stress reactions to heavy combat in the Vietnam War went on to suffer greatly elevate [[#|rates]] of circulatory, digestive, respiratory, and infectious diseases. (Meyers 533)
      • Stress arises less from events themselves than from from how we appraise them (Lazarus, 1988).
      • The adrenal glands (atop of the kidneys) release stress hormones on orders received through a dual-track system. (Myers)
      • Stress hormones enter the bloodstream from sympathetic nerve endings in the inner part of the adrenal glands. This is one part of the sympathetic nervous system's response. When alerted by any of a number of brain pathways, the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and respiration, diverts blood from digestion to the skeletal muscles, dulls pain, and releases sugar and fat from the body's stores – all to prepare the body for the adaptive response called fight or flight (Myers 533).
      • Stress Response system:
  • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)- term used to describe the body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress, and is broken down into three stages.
    • alarm: during alarm your heart rate speeds up, blood goes to skeletal muscles, and you feel like your bodies in shock (Myers)
      • body is energized for immediate action, [[#|adaptive]] for transient stressors
    • resistance: here your temperature, [[#|blood pressure]], and respiration stay high, and hormones pour out (Myers)
      • body cannot be aroused forever and the parasympathetic starts to reduce the arousal state
      • If persistent, the stress may eventually deplete your body's reserves during Phase 3. (Meyers 534)
    • exhaustion: with exhaustion you are external image arrow-10x10.png vulnerable to illness or in extreme cases collapse and death (Myers)
      • body's resources are exhausted
      • Exhaustion leads to a weaker external image arrow-10x10.png, this is why people that stay up late and get little to no sleep, are external image arrow-10x10.png likely to get a cold or some other type of illness
    • As a student one may be subject to extensive studying, or worrying about exams, which can lead to burnout
  • Dual-response system: the adrenal glands (located above the kidneys) release stress hormones on orders received through a dual-track system
Stress appraisal: How we appraise an event influences how much stress we experience and how effectively we respond (Myers).
Stressful event (Tough Math Test)
("yikes, this is hard!")
Panic, freeze up

("I've to external image arrow-10x10.png what I know")
Aroused, focused
  • Perceived Control
  • belief that one can control one's own internal states of behavior and one's environment
          • one can change events surrounding their life
          • The "executive" rat can switch off the tail shock by turning the wheel. Because it has control over the shock, it is no more likely to develop ulcers than is the unshocked control rat. The "subordinate" rat receives the same shock as the executive rat. But because the subordinate rat has no control over the shocks, it is more likely to develop ulcers.``
    • People tend to die younger in areas where there is greater income inequality (Myers)
    • John Lynch and his colleagues (1998, 2000) report that people at every income level are at greater risk of death if they live in a community with great income inequality
    • Studies in Denmark, Japan, and the United States indicate that income more than inequality predicts mortality (Muller, 2002; Osler & others, 2002; Shibuya & others, 2002)
    • A control-related factor that also influences our vulnerability to stress is optimism
    • Psychologists Michael Scheier and Charles Carver (1992) report that optimists not only perceive more control, but they also cope with stressful events more efficiently and enjoy better health (Myers 538)
    • Optimists also respond to stress with smaller increases in blood pressure, and they recover more quickly from heart bypass surgery
Ex. Britain and United States have life expectancy four years lower than than those in Japan and Sweden, where income differences are less extreme
Ex. Control helps explain the link between economic status and longevity. A study done in a graveyard in Glasgow, Scotland looked at 843 external image arrow-10x10.png and discovered that the deceased people who had the most expensive external image arrow-10x10.png had lived longest.
  • diseases influenced by behavior have now emerged as the major causes of death (percentages of top deaths in the U.S. highest to lowest) Heart Disease, Cancer, Strokes, Chronic Lung Disease (Myers532)

Stress and the Heart
  • Coronary Heart Disease:external image arrow-10x10.png - the closing of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle and is also the leading cause of death in many developed countries. (Myers)
    • before that the leading cause of death was tuberculosis
    • In family history of the disease, many behavioral and physiological factors increase the risk of heart attack-smoking, obesity, a high external image arrow-10x10.png, physical inactivity, elevated blood pressure, and an elevated external image arrow-10x10.png (Myers).
    • Meyer Friedman through studies found out that stress predicted external image arrow-10x10.png. (Myers)
  • Type A- Competitive, hard-driving, verbally aggressive, impatient and anger-prone people. (Myers)
  • Type A-toxic core is negative emotions-especially that anger associated with aggressively reactive temperament. (Meyers 540)
  • Modifying a Type A life-style can reduce occurrence of heart attacks.
  • Type B- easy going and relaxed people. (Myers). Interestingly CEOs tend to be type B personality. This is because these people do not let insignificant issues get to them.
  • In a study done by Friedman and Rosenman's about type A and B people they found 69 percent of the men they studied had suffered of a heart attack, none of the type B suffered from heart attacks. (Myers)
  • Type A personality is external image arrow-10x10.png prone to external image arrow-10x10.png, because of the stress they place on themselves. (Myers)
  • Type A individuals are external image arrow-10x10.png often "combat ready".
  • Type A personality are more physiologically reactive, their hormonal secretions, pulse rate and blood pressure soar while type B personality remain calm.(Myers)
  • Type A people are more likely to have external image arrow-10x10.png, because type A individuals smoke more,drink more caffeinated drinks, and sleep less.
  • Greater reactivity of Type A people include: higher levels of stress hormones, and stressed situations (Myers)
  • Example: If a Type A was next to a mountain they would climb it because it was their. If a Type B was next to a mountain they would lay against it and relax because its their.d
  • Type D (distressed) people who are generally moody or external image arrow-10x10.png, and have low social inhibitions are also more likely to suffer from Coronary Heart Disease since they are under almost constant stress.
Stress and Susceptibility to Disease
  • Psychophysiological illness- literally, "mind-body" illness (psycho meaning mind and physio meaning body); any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches.(Myers)
    • A person under stress may retain excess sodium and fluids, which together with constriction of other arteries' muscle walls, contribute to increased blood pressure (Light & others, 1983).
    • This is not hypochondriasis, the misinterpreting of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
  • Psychosomatic Disease- psychologically caused physical symptoms, precipitated by emotional stess.
    • the state of ones mind can have great influence on a physical disease
    • Some one can create symptoms that fit, what he/she thinks they suffering from
  • Lymphocytes- the two types of external image arrow-10x10.png that are part of the body's external image arrow-10x10.png" B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and, among other duties, attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances. (Myers)
  • Macrophage- is an agent of the external image arrow-10x10.png also knows as the "big eater". It identifies, pursues, and ingests harmful invaders (Myers).
    • Studies have shown that stress reduces the external image arrow-10x10.png count and therefore the immune system is less effective at fighting off diseases.
  • By being stressed out the external image arrow-10x10.png may be affected in two distinctive way: the first would be for the immune system to over react and harm the body's own tissue and cause allergic reactions, or the second would be for the immune system to become weak and lack protection from viruses, bacteria, and let cancer cells multiple faster, due to the body switching its energy from nourishing the immune system to keep the body in a constant state of arousal.
  • Another agent of the immune system is the macrophage ("big eater"), which identifies, pursues, and ingests harmful invaders (Myers).
Stress often leads to the faster progression of such diseases as AIDS, which is "an acquired immune deficiency syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is spread by the exchange of bodily fluids, primarily in semen and blood." (myers)
HIV and AIDS result in the destruction of T-cells by the virus, leading to increased risk of disease and infection due to inability to fight off foreign substances. People do not really die from external image arrow-10x10.png, they die from diseases their bodies cannot fight off because of the low amount of T-cells available to protect the body.
  • AIDS has become the world's fourth leading cause of death and number one killer in Africa. AIDS is an immune system disease. (Myers)
Stress and Cancer
  • Stress and Negative Emotion have influenced the rate at which cancer is progressing
  • In attempts to understand the connection between stress and cancer, rodents were implanted with tumor cells or given cancer-producing substances. The rodents that were exposed to uncontrolled stress as well were external image arrow-10x10.png prone to cancer because their immune systems were weakened by stress. These rodents developed tumors sooner and developed tumors that grew larger.
  • In noting the modest link between emotions and cancer prognosis, we must remember that stress does not create cancer cells. Rather, it affects their growth by weakening the body's natural defenses against a few proliferating, malignant cells. (Meyers 544).

Conditioning the Immune System
  • Ader discovered it was possible to condition the immune system by providing a rat with a drug and saw a positive affect to the immune system. Then he gave the rat the drug plus sweetened water and saw the same response from the immune system. After a couple of times of repeating the same procedure, Ader provided the rat with only sweetened water, and saw the rippled positive response of the immune system, as if the rat would have enhanced the drug.
  • There is evidence that "mental disorders arise from physical causes," and vice versa, which is one of the reason why people who think positively or who believe that a placebo works even though it shouldn't tend to recover from illnesses faster than those who are negative. Mind and body interact. Everything psychological is simultaneously physiological. (Meyers)
    • Negative emotions can lead to health related consequences, especially in "disease prone" angry, depressed, or anxious people.(Myers 545)
  • EX: The unconditioned stimulus would be a drug and this leads to the unconditioned response would be the immune suppression. The conditioned stimulus would be sweetened water and adding that with the unconditioned stimulus, the drug, would lead to the unconditioned response. Once it is conditioned, the conditioned response alone, the sweetened water, would lead to the conditioned response of the immune suppression.

Stressful Life Events
  • Stress invigorates our lives by arousing and motivating us. (Myers)
  • Catastrophic events - earthquakes, combat stress, floods, war
  • Toxic Stress: Researchers have found that catastrophes such as flooding increase rates of psychological disorders. (Myers).
    • Unpredictable, large-scale events
      • Oftentimes people will provide aid for those involved in catastrophic events, but the physical damage is too great and the rate of psychological disorders rises significantly regardless of the help provided (Myers).
      • Researchers have found that catastrophes such as flooding increase rates of psychological disorders. (Myers)
      • Stress often develops from the trauma of uprooting and family separation, and from the challenges of adjusting to a foreign culture's external image arrow-10x10.png, ethnicity, climate, and social norms(Myers).
    • When one is forced out of the comfort zone, it is often stressful
    • Significant personal change- leaving home, the death of a loved one, the loss of a job, a marriage, or divorce (Meyers 536).
    • When one experiences a cluster of stressful events all at once, they are but at high risk for disease or even death (Myers).
    • During this time one will experience the alternative to the flight or fight response where they will Withdraw,Pullback, and reserve energy.(Myers)
    • Often everyday occurrences- rush hour traffic, aggravating housemates, long lines, misplacing things (Meyers 536).
    • Response to daily events in our lives
    • these are known as transient stressors, which only last a short period but in bulk can lead to prolonged stress and exhaustion
      • Racism can be a stressor that can have physical and psychological consequences in the long run. The constant thought of others disliking you or belittling you, takes a toll on your health as time progresses (Myers).
      • Getting a bad grade on a test once in a while will not cause you to stress for a long amount of time but continuously getting bad grades will add up and cause stress by plaguing one with questions whether or not they will pass their class and be able to move on.
  • Chronic Stress by age- feelings for chronic stress tend to subside as people ages, in the data from Statistics Canada, 1999. The same is true for Americans: Half of adults under age 50 report "frequent" stress, as do fewer than 30 percent of those over 50. (Myers)
Promoting Health
  • Preventing illness and promoting health through stress management and behavior change is far easier and more cost-effective than attempting to treat problems after they occur. Coping with stress-Life event can be debilitating or not.It depends on how we appraise them and whether the stresses are buffered by a stress resistant disposition, healthy habits, and enduring social support. (Myers)
  • Perceived control
      • People who have more control tend to be healthier
      • Loss of control suppresses our immune response and elevates stress hormones
  • Aerobic Exercise
    • Strengthens the heart, increases blood flow, keeps blood vessels open, and lowers both blood pressure reaction to stress.(Myers)
      • Norepinephrine restores blood pressure and improves cardiac functioning.
      • Serotonin affects your brain cells related to your mood; if there is a substantial imbalance in serotonin levels it may lead to depression.
      • Endorphins are neurotransmitters that react with parts of your brain that block pain and control emotion.
    • Exercise boosts our mood and benefits our physical health, thus decreasing negative stress related effects
      • Exercises such as aerobic and running counteract depression byincreasing arousal state andnaturally doing what Prozac would, increase the brain's serotonin activity.
    • ex."Mildly depressed college women who participated in aerobic exercise programs showed markedly reduced depression, compares with those who did relaxation exercises or received no treatment"-McCann and Holmes, 1984 (Myers547).
    • enhances cognitive abilities, such as memory (Etnier & others, 1997).
    • Helps people learn different ways to control a particular physiological response.
    • Although the degree of mind control over the body that is gained using biofeedback is less than expected, it can help control headaches and high blood pressure (Myers)
    • Biofeedback is a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information about subtle physiological responses (Myers).
    • "... they (biofeedback) allow the person to learn techniques for controlling a particular psychological response." (Meyers)
  • Social Support- close relationships, family, and friends are a certain amount of help in trying to beat any illnesses. They bring happiness and relaxation to the sick person.
    • Family members who offer social support also help patients to receive medical treatment more quickly (Myers).
    • People eat better and exercise more because of partners that quide and goad them into treatment routines (Myers).
    • Connected people sleep better than lonely people (Cacioppo & others, 2002) (Myers).
    • People with partners smoke and drink less (Myers)
    • Supportive relationships help us overcome stressful events. Ie: social rejection (Myers).
    • People close to us help our self esteem (Myers).
    • Sleep management helps because a healthy sleep routine gives the body the rest it needs, therefore decreasing stress
    • People around us boost our self-esteem by assurance
    • Healthy environments and friendships support our immune system, allowing us to recover from a stressful situation faster.
  • Spirituality and Faith- several studies have found that those that live longer and with little or no stress believe in God and go to church twice a week. Some of the reasons are the fact that they drink and smoke less, usually health oriented, and have social support.
  • complementary and alternative medicine- unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies. (Myers)
    • "A man with scleroderma, a progressive and fatal disease of the skin and internal organs, cures himself with vinegar, lemons, aloe vera juice, and vitamin e." (Myers)
    • Encompasses acupuncture, spiritual healing, herbal remedies, chiropractic, aromatherapy, etc. (Myers)
    • Meditation is a form of relaxation in which one tries to block out other external stimuli and only focus on one thing in order to decrease heart rate, blood pressure, and stress (Myers).
    Some aspects of alternative medicine, like life-style and stress management, have acknowledged validity (Myers)
  • Complementary and alternative medicine are often based on Eastern medical techniques, but have not yet been fully accepted in the Western health care system, though they are gaining popularity.

Modifying Illness related behaviors
  • Researchers are persuaded that health-promotion cost far less than many countries now spend to treat diseases. (Myers)
  • Researchers are also looking closely at what we eat and why. One line of study explores how certain foods, by providing building blocks for specific neurotransmitters, affect mood and behavior. (Myers)

Subfields of alternative medicine

Alternative systems of medical practice - external image arrow-10x10.png ranging from self-care according to folk principles, to care rendered in an organized health care system based on alternative traditions or practice. (Myers)
  • Herbal medicine - Employing plant and plant products from folk medicine traditions for pharmacological use.(Myers)
  • many traditional groups use these methods, while most others prefer pharmaceuticals
  • Bioelectromagnetic applications- Study of how living organisms respond to electromagnetic fields(Meyers 557).
  • Diet, Nutrition, Life-style changes- The knowledge for preventing or curing illness by dietary and nutritional intervention(Meyers 557). An example would be when A young woman diagnosed with bone cancer starts a vigorous exercise program (biking 500 miles and running 60 miles weekly), becomes vegetarian (consuming fresh fruit, juices, and whole grains), and shucks the alleged cancer. (Myers 556).
  • But critics point out that people consult physicians for diagnosable, curable diseases and employ alternative medicine when they are either incurably ill or are basically well but feeling subpar. So, an otherwise healthy person with a cold, for example, may try an herbal remedy and then credit the subsequent return to good health to alternative medicine, rather than to the body's natural regression to normal. (Myers 556).
The largest preventable cause of death in North America is cigarette smoking. (Myers) This is because external image arrow-10x10.png and heart disease.
Smoking is a "pediatic disease", it ussally begins during early adolescence and is especially common among those who get low grades, who drop out of school, who feel less competent and in control of their future, and whose friends, parents, and siblings smoke. (Myers 558)
  • Nonsmokers not only live healthier, they live happier. Smoking correlates with higher rates of depression, chronic disabilities, and divorce. Healthy living seems to add both years to life and life to years. (Myers)
  • According to Myers, Smoking is a "pediatric disease", that usually begins during early adolescence and is especially common among those who get low grades, who drop out of school, and who feel less competent.
  • Smoking is sometimes picked up by individuals at an early age because they seek to relieve the stress of peer pressure and model the "cool" people smoking (Meyer).
  • By the time most individuals are passed the high school stage and and are in college and have not started smoking, will, in general, probably never be led toward smoking.
  • It has been found that adolescents are more likely to try cigarettes when they watch larger amounts of movies portraying smoking.
  • Once the body becomes physically dependent upon the nicotine in cigarettes, it becomes extremely difficult to stop.
  • Ever year only about 1 out of 7 individuals, who smokes, yet intends to do stop smoking actually does so.
  • The tolerance and withdrawal associated with other drugs are also applicable for nicotine.
    • Therefore, as tolerance develops greater quantities of nicotine are required to satisfy the individual.
  • Nicotine is involved in the dispensation of epinephrine and norepinephrine (adrenaline and noradrenaline). Additionally, the ingestion of nicotine arouses the autonomic nervous system. Heart beats per second increase and blood pressure also increases and the brain functions at a more active level.
  • Nicotine reaches the brain within 7 seconds, which is twice as fast as intravenous heroin. (Myers)
  • Nicotine is not only mood-altering and compulsive, but it is also reinforcing. (Myers)
  • arouses the brain to a state of increased alertness
  • Inc. Heart rate and blood pressure
  • relaxes muscles and triggers the release of endorphins, natural opiates that may reduce stress.
  • reduces circulation to externalities
  • suppreseses appetite for carbohydrates
  • At elevated levels in the body, nicotine triggers for the release of endorphins, which relax and calm the body (Myers 559)
  • Smoking correlates with higher rates of depression, chronic disabilities, and divorce. (Myers)
  • According to a National Cancer Institute panel the key ingredients to to teach to prevent smoking are:
    • Information about the effects of smoking
    • Information about peer, parent and media influences
    • Training in refusal skills (Myers,561)
  • The body synthesizes the neurotransmitter serotonin from the amino acid tryptophan. Several studies have found that high -carbohydrate foods increase the relative amount of tryptophan reaching the brain via the bloodstream.(Myers)
  • High-Protein foods seem to improve alertness, where as high carbohydrate goods seem to promote relaxation.(Myers)
  • Hypertensive people tend to have a higher than normal salt intake and a lower than normal calcium intake, thus linking the importance of diet to high blood pressure (Myers).
  • Nutritionally empty sugar calories added to cereal, fruit drinks, soft drinks, etc. displace more nutritious foods that results in an increased risk of osteoporosis, cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease (Myers).
  • Well-nourished children are happier and more active.(Myers)
Obesity and Weight Control
  • Fat is a an ideal form of stored energy that provides the body with a high-calorie fuel to reserve to carry it through periods when food is scarce. (Myers)
  • Some people believe there is a genetic predisposition to what one's body weight will be. Tt is though to be fruitless to try and lose weight as one might regain it back later (Meyer)
  • Individual differences in metabolism and set point explain why it is possible for two people to have very different weights despite similar patterns of eating and exercise. (Myers)
  • Fat cells may change in size as a person gains or loses weight, but their number never decreases.(Myers) This make it harder for overweight people to lose weight as their metabolism tends to slow down with the purpose of providing enough energy to maintain the increased number of cells.
  • Cultures without a thin-ideal for women are also cultures without eating disorders. (Myers)
  • most overweight people are just normal people whose bodies predispose them to weigh more (Myers)
  • Fitness matters more than being a little overweight, being a little overweight causes minor health problems. (Myers,565)
  • relative risks of death among healthy nonsmokers rises extremely high or low body mass index(Myers 565)
The Physiology of Obesity
  • Obese people see obesity as a matter of choice or as reflecting a personality problem- a maladjusted way of reducing anxiety, dealing with guilt, or gratifying an "oral fixation". (Myers)
  • Obesity is a threat to both physical and psychological well-being.(Meyers)
  • Our bodies are set at different weights which causes some people to have different weights
  • Studies made about adoptees and twins revealed that there is a genetic influence on body weight. (Myers)
  • The metabolic rates of individuals greatly affects their weight gain/loss. This explains why individuals of similar heights, ages, and activity levels can have greatly varying food intake levels and maintain the same body weight. (Myers)
  • Another reason why obese people find it so hard to lose weight permanently is because their bodies' "weight thermostat" is set to maintain body weight within a higher-than-average-range. When their weight drops below the set-point, metabolism decreases and hunger increases (Myers 565).
  • Obesity is six times more common among lower-class women than upper-class women. (Myers)
  • Identical twins have closely similar weights, even when reared apart. (Plomin &others, 1997; Stunkard & others, 1990)
  • We humans were not designed for a world filled with energy saving cars and tools and high calorie food. In hunting and gathering societies, obesity is almost unknown. ( Brown, 1993).
  • Recent animal studies reveal that when obese mice are treated with leptin, and eat less, they become more active, and lose weight. In obese humans, leptin receptors are insensitive to leptin.(Myers)
  • The relentless pursuit pf thinness puts people at risk not only for binge eating and food obsession, but also for weight fluctuations, malnutrition, smoking, depression, and harmful side effects of weight loss drugs. (Myers)
The Genetic Factor:
  • Genes aren't the whole story behind obesity. (Myers)
  • there can be high levels of heredibility.. without herdity explaning group differneces. (Myers)
  • Metabolism is one example of something that one cannot control effectively and often those that are overweight have a weak metabolism.
external image arrow-10x10.png
  • If weight is lost in a diet, their metabolism slows down and hungry fat cells desire more food
  • People who succeed in weight loss usually gain it back
  • 29% of men, 44 % of women are actively trying to lose weight (Grady, 2000)
Helpful Hints for Losing Weight
  • Exercising is a good way to increase one's metabolism so that the person can burn more fat cells and lower their set point.
  • In order to lose and maintain your ideal weight, one must change his or her lifestyle and habbits instead of resorting to quick diet fixes.
  • Aerobic exercise is a great option for losing weight because it also helps with stress hence, it keeps both body and emotions healthy.
  • Examples of aerobic exercise would be walking, running, and swimming. These do not only help you burn fat but it builds muscle and makes you feel better (Myers 570).
  • Minimize exposure to tempting food cues.
  • stress may often result in weight gain, and that weight gain may result in more stress, so to avoid this never-ending circle, exercise both helps to lose weight and relieve stress, a double wammy
  • don't starve all day and eat one big meal at night, it slows metabolism
  • be realistic and moderate. Being moderately heavy is less risky than being extremely thin (Myers)
  • A study shows that watching tv and snacking contribute to obesity.
  • Studies have shown that after a decade passes virtually all subjects had gained their weight back. This is because obesity is a personality problem, a lifestyle choice, not a temporary thing that can be fixed by a one time surgery.
  • More than men, women have self-identified themselves as wanting to lose weight, and this is most evident in the difference in the proportions of male and female teenagers that want to lose weight.
  • Exercise before and during a dietary program to lose weight is the best predictor of weight loss success because it shows the consistency and self-discipline to make weight loss a life decision rather than a temporary fad.
  • Eating healthier foods helps maintain a healthier lifestyle
  • People should not binge. That causes humans to later unleash their ge to eaT sometimes overeating more than they would have in the first place.
  • In order for one to maintain a set point one must keep that point for at least a couple of years for the set point to lower.

Coping With Stress

  • most people often turn towards bad habits in times of stress such as smoking, drinking, excessive eating, etc.
  • However these coping mechanisms are not productive. Things such as exercise, healthy eating habits and a good group of social support.
  • Maintainging a good diet and exercise may be complicated in times of stress how were those are two major stress relievers.