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Please be aware that this is a student-generated wiki designed for review for my students' AP exams. Come in, look around, and enjoy yourself...just be aware of the nature of this wiki. Even though most everything is correct, I advise caution before citing this as an authoritative source.

Before we had the type of therapies we have now, people with psychological disorders were treated harshly such as drilling holes in the head, by restraining, or by bleeding the people. Now we have turned to gentler methods thanks to Philippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix. Now treatment methods are external image arrow-10x10.png humane. (Myers)
-Every type of therapy offers people a plausible explanation of their symptoms and an alternative way of looking at themselves or responding to their worlds (Myers).


Today's favored treatment depends on the therapist's viewpoint (Myers)
-Those who believe that psychological disorders are learned will tend to favor psychological therapies, those who view disorders as biological rooted are likely to advocate medication as well, and those who believe that disorders are responses to social conditions will want to reform the 'sick' environment (Myers).a
-employs structured interactions (usually verbal) between a trained professional and a client with a problem. (Myers)

  • William Hogarth's (1697-1764) engraving of St. Mary of Bethlehem hospital in London depicts the treatment of mental disorders in the eighteenth century
  • Visitors paid to gawk at the patients as if they were viewing zoo animals
  • Benjamin Rush (1746-1813), a founder of the movement for more humane treatment of the mentally ill, believed that they required restraint to regain their sensibilities (Myers 660)

  • Eclectic Approach- an approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy (also know as psychotherapy integration) (Myers).
    • Closely related to eclecticism is psychotherapy integration; rather than picking and choosing methods, integration advocates aim to combine then into a single, coherent system. (Myers 660)

-Some 250 types of psychotherapy have been identified. Each is built on one or external image arrow-10x10.png of psychology's major theories: psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavioral, and cognitive. (Meyers 660)
Classify therapies into two main categories: (Myers)
  • Psychological therapies- structured interactions between a trained professional and a client with a problem
  • Biomedical therapies- act directly on the patient's nervous system, an example is shock therapy.
    • ECT's, a form of biomedical therapy, is when an electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
      • psychotropic (psychologically active drugs include antipsychotics, antidepressants, anxiolytics, and lithium salts (Tlalamo 187)
        • anti-psychotics- such as Clozapine (used on schizophrenic patients with negative symptoms such as apathy), Thorazine (used on schizophrenic patients with positive symptoms such as paranoia), and Haldol reduce symptoms of schizophrenia by blocking dopamine receptors
        • antidepressant drugs: include MOA inhibitors, tricyclics, and selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)
        • anxiolytics (anti-anxiety): drugs such as Xanax; depress central nervous system to reduce anxiety
        • These anxiety reducing drugs have less side effects and are more effective as they do not directly influence anything, but rather indirectly alter the serotonin reuptake process of neurons.
  • What is Psychotherapy:

In psychotherapy, psychologists apply scientifically validated procedures to help people develop healthier habits. There are several approaches to psychotherapy such as cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal and many others.
Psychotherapy is a collaborative treatment between an individual and a psychologist. Treatment provides a supportive environment that allows you to talk openly with someone who’s neutral and nonjudgmental. You and your psychologist will work together to identify and change the thought and behavior patterns that are keeping you from feeling your best.

Psychotherapy may not be too effective, because of these reasons:
  • People often enter therapy in crisis, so when the event passes, people attribute improvement to therapy (Myers)
  • Clients may need to believe the therapy was worth the effort, and may think this to feel it that it truly worked, like self justification (Myers)
  • Clients generally like their therapists and speak kindly of them and develop a positive relationship with their therapists (Myers)
    • depending on the client and the problem, an eclectic therapist will draw from a variety of techniques and a blend of therapies. (Myers 660)
    • closely related to eclecticism is psychotherapy integration. (Myers)
    • Also known as: Psychotherapy Integration-rather than picking and choosing methods, integration advocates aim to combine them into a single, coherent system. (Meyers 660)
  • Psychoanalysis - Freud believed that the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences - and the therapist's interpretations of them - released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight (Myers).
  • Symptom substitution-after a person is successfully treated for one psychological disorder, that the person begins to experience a a new psychological problem. (Barrons)

Psychoanalysis is Sigmund Freud's creation, Dr. Freud believed that patients could be cured by revealing how the conscious mind interacts with the unconscious mind and bringing repressed conflicts to the conscious mind to resolve problems.
- psychoanalysis is a set of psychological and therapeutic theories and associated techniques, originally popularized by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud, and stems from the clinical work of Josef Breuer.
- one-on-one therapy used to resolve unconscious conflicts that causes anxiety. This type of therapy usually has clients that have had early childhood trauma.
  • For example, say you call your girlfriend by your ex girlfriend's name, psychoanalysis would say this is because you have unresolved feelings for his your ex rather than a external image arrow-10x10.png simple explanation.
-"a planned,emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained social sanctioned healer and a sufferer" (Frank,1982)
-Freud's therapeutic technique is called the Freud-influenced psychodynamic therapy which Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams,and transference-and the therapist's interpretation of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight. (Myers)
- Free association is when the patient relaxes, perhaps on a chair or couch, and does not look at the analyst when speaking so they can say whatever comes to mind without being visually distracted by the analyst (Myers).
-Transference is when the patient transfers feeling of someone to the therapist for example love/hatred to a parent (Meyers)
-An example of this is when a patient talking about intense hatred of their sibling transfers that same hate to the therapist.
- The goal is to bring out repressed feelings or thoughts into conscious awareness and work through them thus helping the patient.
- The placement of the analyst's chair out of the view is thought to minimize distraction and make it easier for the patient to verbalize whatever comes to mind. (Myers)
  • Resistance- in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material. (Myers)
    • They hint that anxiety lurks and that you are repressing sensitive material. The analyst will want to explore these sensitive areas, first making you aware of your resistance and then interpreting their underlying meaning. (Myers)
  • Interpretations- in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed external image arrow-10x10.png, resistances, and other significant behaviors in order to promote insight. They are suggestions of underlying wishes, feelings, and conflicts that aim to provide you with insight(Myers 660-661).
    • If offered at the right moment, the analyst's interpretation-of, say your not wanting to talk about your mother-may illuminate what you are avoiding. (Myers)
    • By the analyst examining your feelings as you express them, you may also gain insight into your current relationships. (Myers)
    • For example, if as a child one was overly attracted to their father, and the therapist looked similar or remind the patient of their father, they might be attracted to the therapist.
  • Freud believed that another clue to repressed impulses is your dreams' latent content. Thus, after inviting you to report a dream, the analyst may offer a dream analysis, suggesting its meaning(Myer).
  • Transference- the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (Myers). But psychoanalysis is not just about examining your feelings toward the analyst you may also gain insight into your current relationships. (Meyers 661)
  • Countertransference- therapist transfers his or her own feelings onto the patient (Talamo)
- The major distinction between psychoanalytic therapies and behavior therapies: psychoanalytic therapies seek to provide insight into the presumed childhood origins of the problems. Behavior therapies treat the problem behavior directly, paying less attention to its origins.(Myers)
Psychodynamic Therapy: is a form of depth psychology where the primary focus is to reveal the unconscious content of a client's psyche in an effort to alleviate psychic tension. This form of therapy is heavily influenced by psychoanalysis.
Psychodynamic therapists try to to understand a patient's current symptoms by exploring their childhood experiences. (Myers)
the therapist may talk to their patient face to face even though they are influenced by Freud's psychoanalysis

Interpersonal Psychotherapy: 12-16 sessions of this alternative to psychodynamic therapy has been found effective with depressed patients (Meyers)
  • This also focuses on gaining insight into the roots of patients' difficulties. This therapy is mainly used to improve existing relationships/relationship skills, and not so much on fixing the past and giving interpretations (Myers).
  • Its goal is not personality change but symptom relief in the here and now. (Meyers 662)
Humanistic Therapies
-Just like the humanistic perspective emphasizes on people's potential for self fulfillment, humanistic therapy aims to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance (Myers).
-Carl Rogers, in his client centered therapy, used active listening to express genuineness, acceptance, and empathy. (Myers)
  • Client Centered Therapy: A therapist who focuses on the client's conscious self-perceptions and not on the therapist's interpretation. The therapist listens, without judging or interpreting, and refrains from directing the client toward certain insights, a strategy labeled non directive therapy. (Meyers 663)
  • by doing this, therapists hope that the client will deepen their self-understanding and self acceptance. Rogers says that by doing this, the client "surges forth in a new sense of freedom. he become more open to the process of change." (Myers 663)
- Humanistic disorders are caused by being unable to go towards goals and potentials, and/or not being in touch with his or her feelings (McEntarffer 242)
An example of the humanistic approach would be an AA meeting where everyone has a positive outlook for the future and they are all helping each other fulfill their goals
- Non Directional Approach - Therapy in which the therapist attempts to deal with the patient's view of the world and alter that for the betterment of the individual. (Princeton 164)
Humanistic therapist tend to focus on:
  • the present and future external image arrow-10x10.png than the past. They explore feelings as they occur, rather than achieving insights into the childhood origins of the feelings.
  • conscious rather than unconscious thoughts.
  • taking immediate responsibility for ones feelings and actions, rather than uncovering hidden determinants.
  • promoting growth instead of curing illness. Thus, those in therapy are "clients" rather than "patients." (Myers)
  • Gestalt therapy-therapists encourage their clients to explore feelings of which they may not be aware and emphasize the importance of body position and seemingly minute actions. (Barrons) This therapy combines both physical and mental therapies and was developed by Fritz Perls (The Princeton Review).
  • Client-centered therapy- a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth. (Myers) focuses on the persons conscious self perceptions rather than on the therapists interpretations. (Myers)
- Believing most people already posses the resources for growth, Rogers encouraged therapists to exhibit genuineness, acceptance, and
empathy. (Meyers 663)
  • Active listening- empathetic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A "hearing" feature of Rogers; client-centered therapy. (Myers) Active listening is now an accepted part of therapeutic counseling practices in many schools,colleges, and clinics. The counselor listens attentively and interrupts only to restate and confirm the client's feelings, to accept what the client is expressing, or to seek clarification. (Meyers 664)
    • Paraphrase: check your understandings by summarizing the speakers words in your own words
    • invite clarification: may encourage the speaker to say more
    • reflect feelings: might mirror what you're sensing from the speaker's body language and intensity
  • Existential therapy - a humanistic therapy that focuses on helping one gain a meaningful perspective on one's life (McEntarffer 261)
  • Behavior Therapy- therapy that applies learning principles to elimination of unwanted behaviors. (Myers)
    • maladaptive symptoms are viewed as learned behaviors, which they try to replace with constructive behaviors. (Myers)
  • Counterconditioning- a behavior therapy procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning. (Myers)
-For example, if we repeatedly pair the enclosed space of the elevator space with a response, the fear response may be displaced (Myers 665)
  • Exposure therapies- behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid. Just as people can habituate to the sound of a train passing their new apartment, so, with repeated exposure, can people become less responsive to things that once petrified them.(Myers)
    • In this technique, therapists familiarize the patient with the anxiety causing object. As the patient becomes more and more accustomed to the object, anxiety decreases.
      • One form of exposure therapy is through virtual reality. The technology exposes patients to vivid simulations of their feared stimuli. (Myers 666)
    • is the reverse of systematic desensitization- it seeks to condition an aversion to something the client should avoid. (Myers)
      • Systematic desensitization is also known as aversion therapy. This works by pairing an unwanted behavior such as acholism with an bad stimulious such as a drug that causes nausea. This will condition them to avoid alcohol. (Myers 668)
    • Technique in which a positive response is replaced by a negative response.(Myers)
    • An example of aversive conditioning would be that of a person who must donate money to a local charity that they hate whenever they gain or do not lose the amount of weight they plan on losing.
    • Another example is to treat nail biting, one can paint the fingernails with a yucky-tasting nail polish. (Myers 667)
    • Example: Pairing nausea with drinking alcohol so people will be less willing to drink in fear of getting sick. (Meyers 667)
-Imagine yourself afraid of public speaking. A behavior therapist may first ask for your help in constructing a hierarchy of anxiety triggering speaking situations. Using progressive relaxation, the therapist trains you to relax one muscle group after another, until you achieve a drowsy state of complete relaxation and comfort.
-Then the therapist asks you to imagine, with your eyes closed, a mildly anxiety arousing situation: you were having coffee with a group of friends and you're trying to decide whether to speak up. If imagining a scene causes you to feel any anxiety, you signal your tension by raising your finger, and the therapist instructs you to switch off the mental image and go back to deep relaxation. This imagined scene is repeatedly paired with relaxation until you can feel no trace of anxiety (Myers 666).

Operant Conditioning: through this therapists have been able to reinforce desired behaviors and to withheld undesired behaviors (Myers).
  • token economy- an operant conditioning procedure that reward desired behavior. A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats. (Myers)
  • For example: Working harder at work to receive a raise or approval from your manager/supervisor.
  • ex: when patients display appropriate behavior like cleaning room they will receive a token as a positive reinforcer. Later, they can exchange their accumulated tokens for various rewards such as candy.
  • Cognitive Therapy- teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.( Myers)
  • Self-blaming and overgeneralized explanations of bad events are part of the cycle of depression. Those with depression see suggestions as criticism, and often misinterpret situations. Researchers believe that if depression thinking patterns can be learned than they can be replaced. Cognitive therapies try to teach those who ruminate on such thoughts more constructive ways of thinking to relieve their bad mood (Myers)
  • Critics of behavior modifications express two concerns. The first is practical: What happens when the reinforcers stop when the person leaves an institution. The second is ethical: Is it right for one human to control another's behavior? (Myers)
  • Ex: In one study, 19 withdrawn, uncommunicative 3-year-olds with autism participated in a 2-year, 40 hour a week program in which their parents attempted to shape their behavior (Lovaas, 1987). The combination of positive reinforcing the desired behaviors and ignoring or punishing aggressive and self abusive behaviors worked wonders. By first grade, 9 of the 19 children were functioning successfully in school and exhibiting normal intelligence. Only 1 of 40 comparable children who did not undergo this treatment so similar improvement (Myers 668).
  • A cognitive perspective on psychological disorders: The person's emotional reactions are produced not directly by the event but by the person's thoughts in response to the event (Myers)

    • The persons emotional reactions are produced not directly by the event but by the persons thoughts in response to the event. (Myers)
  • Family Therapy- Treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members. (Myers)
  • Family therapy acts as a preventive mental health strategy. This treatment helps family members relate to one another and realize why a problem were created. This emphasizes changing a family's relationship and interactions with one another (Myers 672).
    • Most Psychotherapies try figuring out what is happening in an individuals own mind, Family therapies on the other hand treat the family as a unit. The therapist goal, is to find out what role each member plays in the family.
    • Once people are aware of their negative thinking, they can replace it with new ways of thinking, and can practice the more positive approach in everyday settings (Myers).
    • It is one of the most popular forms of "talk therapy".
    • If depressing thinking patterns are learned, they can be replaced, (Myers)
    • Stress Inoculation Training: Meichenbaum's practice of training people to restructure thinking in stressful situations (Myers)
    • One type of Cognitive Behavior Therapy is the rational emotive behavior therapy, which is abbreviated as REBT.
      • The major contributor to the formation of this therapy was Albert Ellis.
      • Consider, for example, that an individual has a fear of social interaction and is overly concerned with getting humiliated. Therefore, even though he may know the answer to a question the teacher asks, he may be reluctant to raise his hand, for the fear that he may be wrong and will be laughed at by the entire class and forever tortured by humiliation.
        • An REBT therapist may try to console his client, by first pointing out the probability of such an event occurring and will also focus on the results is this were to occur..
        • He may motivate the student by saying that is he, the student, is fairly certain that his response is correct, he should not fear that he may be wrong.
        • Additionally, the therapist will try to console the client by saying that it would not matter so much even if he were to be wrong. The teacher and students are not there to make fun of the student, and instead will support him.
        • In this case, the therapist is using a rational decision making process to show the client that his fears have been highly exaggerated.
        • In general, these therapists ask their patients to overcome their specific fears, by doing those activities which the fear the most. The therapists want to show the client that the results they, the clients, expect to occur are improbable and not as drastic as they have been exaggerated to be.[1]
  • ex. Aversion Therapy for alcoholism: After repeatedly imbibing an alcoholic drink mixed with a drug that produces severe nausea, some people with history of alcohol abuse develop at least a temporary conditioned aversion to school. (Myers)
Therapists and their Training
  • Clinical Psychologists-Most are psychologists with a Ph.D and expertise in research, assessment, and therapy, supplemented by a supervised internship. About half work in agencies and institutions, half in private practice.
  • Clinical or psychiatric social workers- A two-year master or social work graduate program plus post-graduate supervision prepares some social workers to offer psychotherapy, mostly to people with everyday personal and family problems. About half have earned the National Association of Social Workers' designation of clinical social worker. About half work in private practices and the other in agencies and institutions
  • Counselors- Marriage and family counselors specialize in problems arising from family relations. Pastoral counselors provide counseling to countless people. Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims.
  • Psychiatrists- These physicians specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all psychiatrists have had extensive training in psychotherapy, but as M.D's they can prescribe medications. Thus, they tend to see those with the most serious problems. Many have a private practice.

Biomedical Therapies
  • Biomedical therapies are those that say that people can be treated for their psychological disorders by giving the necessary hormones or chemical drugs to get their bodies functioning the way they should be (Meyer).
Psycho therapy is one way to treat psychological disorders. The other is physically changing the brains functioning-by altering its chemistry with drugs, by overloading its circuits with electroconvulsive shock, or disconnecting its circuits through psychosurgery.(Myers)

"The biomedical therapies assume that mind and body are a unit: Affect one and you will affect the other" (Myers"

Do not aim to explain or promote awareness of problem behaviors but try to modify the problem behaviors (Myers).
  • Meta-Analysis: A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies.
  • A study shows that even when clients are put on a wait list for therapy they are still likely to get better because they will seek out other options. (Meyers)
  • Psycho pharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior.
    • Lithium: A chemical that provides and effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar disorders.
    • Antidepressant drugs- aim to enhance mood by blocking the reuptake of serotonin, the neurotransmitter that is responsible for elevating mood, thus more quantities are found in the synapse which gives it its boost of uplifting effect (Meyer). Many who have witnessed or experienced the healing power of antidepressants question the findings. " It would be vary miraculous if all the people I've seen getting better only by virtue of placebo," said the Nationals Institute of Mental Health's director, Steven Hyman (1999)
    • Patients who begin taking antidepressants do not wake up the next day singing "Oh, what a beautiful morning!" (Myers 688).
  • Prozac and other serotonin-enhancing drugs have been prescribed not only to patients with depression but also to those with OCD, two-thirds of whom respond with "partial symptom reduction". (Myers) Partially blocks the reabsorption and removal of serotonin from synapses (Myers).
  • Ex: Clozapine, Thorazine, Haldol
  • Like alcohol, antianxiety agents, such as Xanax or Valium, depress central nervous system activity (and so should not be used in combination with alcohol). Used in combination with other therapy, an antianxiety drug can help a person learn to cope with frightening situations and fear-triggering stimuli. (Myers 687)
  • Antidepressant drugs are not the only way to give the body a lift. By helping the patient reverse a now habitual negative thinking style, cognitive therapy can boost the drug-aided relief from depression and reduce the post-treatment of relapse (Hollon & others, 2002; Keller & others, 2002). (Myers 688)

Cognitive Therapy
- this perspective evaluates a person's emotional reaction produced not directly by an event but by the persons thoughts in response to the event, between the event and the response, lies the mind
  • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy- aims to alter the way people act (behavior therapy) and to alter the way people think (cognitive therapy).(Myers)
  • Ex. Person with obsessive compulsive disorder has the urge to wash their hands again, but instead engages themselves for fifteen minutes in an alternate behavior(Myers).
  • Another cognitive therapy builds on the finding that depressed people do not exhibit the self serving bias common in non depressed people. Instead, they attribute their failures to themselves and attribute success to external circumstances (Myers).

Group and [[#|Family Therapy]]
  • Group therapy doesn't involve the psychologist as much as other types of therapies do. This allows for the whole group to offer insight and reaction
    • Ex: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
    • Allows others going through the same thing to talk to and give advice to the affected. Also could be loved ones or people affected by the situation/sickness.
  • Family therapy- assumes we grow in relation with others, especially family.
    • treats the family as a system. views an individuals unwanted behavior as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide the family members positive relationships and better communication
    • Family therapy treats the family as an interactive system from which problems may arise. (Myers)
    • Ex. A child's rebellion affects, and is affected by other family tensions(Myers).
    • unlike most psychotherapy, which focuses on what happens inside the person's own skin, family therapists work with family groups to heal relationships and to mobilize family resources.(Myers)

Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
  • a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the [[#|brain]] of an anesthetized patient
  • previously known as electroshock
  • This treatment causes temporary amnesia and can result in seizures though it has been useful in the treatment of depression (The Princeton Review).
- ECT was first introduced in 1938, the patient was strapped to a table and jolted with 100 volts of electricity to the brain.(Myers)
  • usually is limited to treat severe depression, but not used as frequently as drug therapy.(Myers)
  • Although no one is sure how ECT works, one possible explanation is that it increases release of nonepinephrine, the neurotransmitter that elevates mood.(Myers)
  • ECT is usually only used in situations of severe depression. (Myers)
  • Moreover, ECT-treated patients, like other patients with a history of depression, are vulnerable to relapse. Nevertheless electroconvulsive therapy is, in the minds of many psychiatrists and patients, a lesser evil than severe depression's misery, anguish, and risk of suicide. (Myers 690)
  • one theory suggests that the benefits are the result if a change in the brain's blood flow patterns. (Barrons)
  • This treatment has been under the fire, mainly because of the misconceptions that have been attributed to it by the public. Most of the dangers surrounding ECT have been associated with "the misuse of equipment, incorrect administration, or improperly trained staff." (Mayo Clinic)
[[#|Physical Therapy]]
  • a treatment for health problems and makes you move around and do everyday activities. It helps after surgery to recovery and regain movement and to relieve pain.

Psycho surgery
  • Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
  • Effects of psychosurgery are irreversible as they permanently remove tissue
  • Even though psychosurgery are radical procedures such as a lobotomy which was once popular, Neurosurgeons now rarely perform brain surgery to alleviate specific problems.this is a treatment of last resort because the effects are irreversible.(Myers)
  • Lobotomy
    • the most drastic and the least-used biomedical intervention for changing behavior. (Myers)
    • A now -rare psycho surgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotion- controlling centers of the inner brain. Done by taking an ice pick like instrument hammering it through an eye socket into the brain and than move it to to server connections up from the frontal lobes. (Myers)
    • Anesthesia was not used-instead, the patient would be shocked into a coma. (Myers)
    • The procedure was crude, inexpensive, and took about ten minutes. (Myers)
    • By the 1950's thirty five thousand people had been lobotomized. (Myers)
    • While the thought was that the surgeons or those performing the lobotomy were simply disconnecting the emotion from thought, the procedure caused permanent changes in the personality of the patients (Myers).
    • Popularized by Dr. Walter Freeman
  • Biomedical therapies that have proven effective show us that everything that is psychological is to some degree also biological. Our emotions and thoughts depend upon our brain as well (Myers).

Alternative Psychotherapies
  • Therapeutic Touch-the hovering of the hands over a persons body, believing that they are pushing away the bad energy and thus curing the person.
    • Advocates say these manipulations help heal everything from headaches, to burns, to cancer (Myers).
    • The tentative scientific verdict is that therapeutic touch does not work, nor is there any credible theory that predicts why it might. (Myers)
    • Skeptics say the evidence shows no healing power beyond the placebo effect. (Myers)
  • Eye movement desensitization- the belief that if you wave a finger in front of the eyes, the distress that people have or had goes away. This was developed by Francine Shapiro in 1989 when she noticed that her anxiety was quelled when her eyes moved quickly (Myers) According to single trauma victims (84%-100%) say that EMDR is effective in helping patients reduce their stress and anxiety levels. Recently this technique has become more widespread and is uses to reduce pain, anxiety, and external image arrow-10x10.png (Myers)
  • EDMR is believed to operate on the exposure therapy and placebo effect since no scientific basis explains this methods positive results
    • EX: Women who live far from the equator, have a higher rate of getting seasonal effective depression (SAD) in the winter (Myers).
Preventing Psychological Disorders
  • Psychotherapist and biomedical therapist tend to locate the causes of psychological disorders within the person with the disorder. (Myers)
  • We infer that people who act cruelly must be cruel and that who act "crazy" must be "sick". (Myers)
  • Preventive mental help is upstream work. It seeks to prevent psychological causalities by identifying and alleviating the conditions that cause them. (Myers)
  • "Mental disorders arise from physical ones, and likewise physical disorders arise from mental ones." (The Mahabharata, c A.D. 200)
  • Gorge Albee (1986) believes is abundant evidence that poverty, meaningless work, constant criticism, unemployment, racism, and sexism undermine people's sense of competence, personal control and self esteem.Such stresses increase their risk of depression, alcohol and suicide.(Myers)
  • Light Therapy: to prevent winter depression, some people spend time each morning in front of a box that emits intense light that mimics natural outdoor light. (Myers)
Evaluating Psychotherapies
  • Regression toward the mean - tendency of people who were exhibiting unusual behavior begin to fall back (regress) toward their normal state (Myers).
  • ex. A depressed individual through therapy might reach a peak of happiness and complete absence of depression but will eventually regress towards the mean of their behavior they might not regress all the way back down into the abyss of depression but the euphoria they experienced at the peak of therapy will seem a great distance away from their current average emotional state
  • The Nations of Mental Health reports that 19 millions Americans a year seek help for psychological difficulties (Myers).
  • ex. If someone used to be a depressed person and lately they have been experiencing a external image arrow-10x10.png elated mood there is no guarantee that the happiness will stay up to the required level. It might go back down to a depressed mood again as it used to be in the long run (Meyer).
  • When things hit rock bottom, people try anything to feel better, and so more likely it will have an improvement, rather than a failing state, but after some time things go back to their average state. (Myers)
  • Meta-analysis shows that:
  1. People who remain untreated often improve (Myers).
  2. Those who receive psychotherapy are more likely to improve (Myers).
  3. The ones with clear-cut specific problems often receive the greatest benefits (Myers).
  4. Placebo treatments or the sympathy and friendly counsel of paraprofessionals also usually lead to more improvements than occurs when people do not receive any treatment (Myers)
All types of psychotherapy seem to offer three benefits: new hope, a fresh perspective, and an empathic, trusting, caring relationship. Therapists do, however, differ in the values that influence their aims. (Myers)
  • The tendency of abnormal states of mind "regress" to normal, combined with the placebo effect, creates fertile soil for pseudo therapies (Myers)
there are four types of psychotherapists
-Clinical psychologists which most have Ph.Ds and expertise in their field.
-Clinical or psychiatric social workers have a two year maters of social work graduate program. Some offer psychotherapy.
-Counselors can be for marriage or family helping with relationships. Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims.
-Psychiatrists specialize in the treatments of psychological disorders.
  • Anxiety disorders, major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia are known biological events
  • George Albee (1986) believes that "a human being is an integrated bio-psycho-social system" (Myers 692)
  • It has long-since been confirmed that stress affects body chemistry
  • Chemical imbalances, whatever their cause, can produce schizophrenia and depression
  • Depression, anger, and stress can threaten our physical health (Myers 692)

  1. ^ McEntarffer, Robert, and Allyson Weseley. Barron's AP Psychology. Fifth ed. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 2012. Print.